Chinese onion, and shallot, originated in Asia, medicinal plants for healthy daily recipes
Shallot is an important part of diet of many populations and there is long-held belief in their health enhancing properties. Shallots, like onions, are a member of the Allium family, but their flavor is richer, sweeter, yet more potent. The most important benefits of shallots are high source of antioxidants, improve heart health, cancer prevention, diabetes, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, might help fight obesity, and help to prevent or treat allergies. Shallots are a rich source of flavonoid antioxidants such as quercetin and kaempferol. They contain sulfur antioxidant compounds such as diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and allyl propyl disulfide. Shallots hole proportionately more concentration of vitamins and minerals than in onions, especially vitamin-A, pyridoxine, folates, thiamin, vitamin-C etc. Chinese onion has very complex nutritional composition and holds the better characteristics for its potential development as a food ingredient, source of antioxidant; it contains secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, particularly flavonols and anthocyanin, phytosterols and saponins. It is also one of the most important medicinal plant in Eastern Asia. It contains many vitamins and minerals and it is rich in sulphur amino acids. Chinese onion was found to possess a panoply of bioactive compounds and numerous pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-hypertensive and immune-protective effects.
Asemani Y, Zamani N, Bayat M, Amirghofran Z (2019). Allium vegetables for possible future of cancer treatment. Phytotherapy Research 33(12):3019-3039.
Chen CH, Chou TW, Cheng LH, Ho CW (2011). In vitro anti-adenoviral activity of five Allium plants. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 42(2):228-232.
Ebrahimi R, Zamani ZA, Kashi AAK, Jabari A (2008). Comparison of fatty acids, mineral elements of 17 Iranian shallot landraces (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.). Iranian Journal of Food Science and Technology 5(1):61-68.
Ebrahimi R, Zamani Z, Kashi A (2009). Genetic diversity evaluation of wild Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) using morphological and RAPD markers. Scientia Horticulturae 4(17):345-351.
Falahati M, Fateh R, Sharifinia S (2011). Anti-candidal effect of shallot against chronic candidiasis. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics 10:49-51.
Farajii M, Roozbeh Nasiraie L, Farhoodi M (2018). Antibacterial effect of ethanolic extract shallot (Allium Hirtifolium) on the clostridium botulinum and staphylococcus aureus and organoleptic prospertise of liquid curd. Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology 12(4):73-82.
Fattorusso E, Iorizzi M, Lanzotti V, Taglialatela-Scafati O (2002). Chemical composition of shallot (Allium ascalonicum Hort.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(2):5686-5690.
Ge J, Hu Y, Guo L, Wang C, Sun W, Shahrajabian MH (2018). Effects of GA3 and ABA on the germination of dormant oat seeds. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 3(175):25-41.
Golubkina N, Zamana S, Seredin T, Poluboyarinov P, Sokolov S, Baranova H, … Caruso G (2019). Effect of selenium biofortification and beneficial microorganism inoculation on yield, quality and antioxidant properties of shallot bulbs. Plants 8(102):1-18.
He Q, Huang S, Wu Y, Zhang W, Wang F, Cao J, … Ou W (2018). Comparative study on the composition of free amino acids derivatives in the two botanical origins of an edible Chinese herb Xiebai, i.e. Allium chinense G. Don and Allium macrostemon Bunge species. Food Research International 106:446-457.
Jalal R, Bagheri SM, Moghimi A (2010). The effect of Iranian shallot or garlic aqueous extracts on learning, memory and serum biochemical variables in fructose-fed Wistar rats. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 14(3):284-289.
Kazemian S, Karimi A, Pilevariyan A, Ghandi A (2017). The effect of hydro-alcoholic shallots extract testis and spermatogenesis in balb/c mice. Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services 25(109):50-62.
Khoshkharam M, Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019). Survey the allelopathic effects of tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) on corn (Zea mays L.) growth and germination. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 4(180):332-340.
Kongkaew W, Phichai K (2010). The use of medicinal plants extracts and antagonistic bacteria to control green mold disease (Trichoderma ssp.) of Yanagi mushroom. RMUTTO Research Journal 3:26-37.
Krejcova P, Kucerova P, Stafford GI, Jager AK, Kubec R (2014). Anti-inflammatory and neutological activity of pyrithione and related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides from Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 154(1):176-182.
Leelarungrayub N, Chanarat N, Rattanapanone V (2004). Potential activity of Thai shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) extract on the prevention of hemolysis and glutathione depletion in human erythrocyte from oxidative stress. CMU Journal 3(3):225-234.
Leelarungrayub N, Rattanapanone V, Chanarat N, Gebicki JM (2006). Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations. Nutrition 22(3):266-274.
Lin YP, Lin L, Yeh HY, Chuang CH, Tseng SW, Yen YH (2016). Antihyperlipidemic activity of Allium chinense bulbs. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 24(3):516-526.
Liu XC, Lu XN, Liu QZ, Liu ZL (2014). Evaluation of insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Allium chinense G. Don and its major constituents against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 17:853-856.
Moradi Y, Moradi-Sardareh H, Ghasemi H, Mohamadi N, Moradi MN, Hosseini-Zijoud SM (2013). Medicinal properties of Persian shallot. European Journal of Experimental Biology 3(1):371-379.
Ogbaji PO, Shahrajabian MH, Xue X (2013). Changes in germination and primarily growth of three cultivars of tomato under diatomite and soil materials in auto-irrigation system. International Journal of Biology 5(3):80.
Ogbaji PO, Li J, Xue X, Shahrajabian MH, Egrinya EA (2018). Impact of bio-fertilizer or nutrient on Spinach (Spinacea Oleracea) growth and yield in some province soils of P.R. China. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 2(174):43-52.
Pan Y, Zheng YM, Ho WS (2018). Effect of quercetin glucosides from Allium extracts on HepG2, PC-3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. Oncology Letters 15(4):4657-4661.
Phaiphan A, Panichakool P, Jinawan S, Penjumras P (2019). Effects of heat and shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) supplementation on nutritional quality and enzymatic browning of apple juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 1-8.
Raeisi S, Sharifi-Rad M, Quek SY, Shabanpour B, Sharifi-Rad J (2016). Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) fruit and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague) seed extracts in semi-fried coated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets for shelf-life extension. LWT- Doof Science and Technology 65:112-121.
Rattanachaikunsopon P, Phumkhachorn P (2009). Shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) oil: diallyl sulfide content and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. African Journal of Microbiology Research 3(11):747-750.
Razieh J, Bagheri SM, Moghimi A (2011). The effect of Iranian shallot or garlic aqueous extract on learning, memory a serum biochemical variable in fructose-fed Wistar rats. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 14(3):284-289.
Ren G, Qiao HX, Yang J, Zhou CX (2010). Protective effects of steroids from Allium chinense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cardiac H9C2 cells. Phytotherapy Research 24:404-409.
Rohn S, Buchner N, Driemel G, Rauser M, Kroh LW (2007). Thermal degradation of onion quercetin glucosides under roasting conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55:1568-1573.
Sadat Hosseini F, Falahati-pour SK, Hajizadeh MR, Khoshdel A, Mirzaei MR, Ahmadirad H, Behroozi R, Jafari N, Mahmoodi M (2017). Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium Boiss, induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cytotechnology 69:551-563.
Setyadjit, Sukasih E (2015). Effect of addition of filler on the production of shallot (Allium cepar var. ascalonicum L.) powder with drum dryer. Procedia Food Science 3:396-408.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2018). A review of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) in traditional Chinese medicine as a promising organic superfood and superfruit in modern industry. Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants 6(12):437-445.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019a). The influence of traditional Iranian and Chinese medicine on western and Islamic countries. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 5(2):94-99.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019b). Modern pharmacological actions of Longan fruits and their usages in traditional herbal remedies. Journal of Medicinal Plant Studies 7(4):179-185.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019c). Jujube, a super-fruit in traditional Chinese medicine, heading for modern pharmacological science. Journal of Medicinal Plant Studies 7(4):173-178.
Shahrajabian MH, Khoshkharam M, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019d). The effect of pretreatment factors on seed germination and seedling growth of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) Middle East Journal of Science 5(1):86-93.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019e). A review of ginseng species in different regions as a multipurpose herb in traditional Chinese medicine, modern herbology and pharmacological science. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 13(10):213-226.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019f). Clinical aspects and health benefits of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in both traditional Chinese medicine and modern industry. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B-Soil & Plant Science 69(6):546-556.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019g). The power of natural Chinese medicine, ginger and ginseng root in an organic life. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 27(1):64-71.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2020a). A short review of goji berry, ginger, ginseng and astragalus in traditional Chinese and Asian medicine. Black Sea Journal of Health Science 3(2):1-2.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2020b). Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) and pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cineraiifolium) as natural alternatives for organic farming and health care- A review. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 14(03):517-523.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2020c). Chinese herbal medicine for SARS and SARS-CoV-2 treatment and prevention, encouraging using herbal medicine for COVID-19 outbreak. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B- Soil & Plant Science. DOI: 10.1080/09064710.2020.1763448
Shen H, Shahrajabian MH, Chao L, Han S, Jue L, Sun W, Cheng Q, Bilian C, Zhijian W (2020). Microbial contamination database and limit standards for herbal medicine. Agrociencia 54(1):107-120.
Sittisart P, Yossan S, Prasertsan P (2017). Antifungal property of chili, shallot and garlic extracts against pathogenic fungi, Phomopsis spp., isolated from infected leaves of para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Agriculture and Natural Resources 51:485-491.
Soleymani A, Shahrajabian MH (2012). Response of different cultivars of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) to irrigation and planting dates in Isfahan, Iran. Research on Crops 13(2):656-660.
Soleymani A, Shahrajabian MH (2018). Changes in germination and seedling growth of different cultivars of cumin to drought stress. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 1(173):91-100.
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q (2019a). The insight and survey on medicinal properties and nutritive components of shallot. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 13(18):452-457.
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q (2019b). Anise (Pimpinella anisum l.), a dominant spice and traditional medicinal herb for both food and medicinal purposes. Cogent Biology 5(1673688):1-25.
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q (2019c). Therapeutic roles of goji berry and ginseng in traditional Chinese. Journal of Nutrition and Food Security 4(4):293-305.
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Khoshkharam M, Cheng Q (2020a). Adaptation of acupuncture and traditional Chinese herbal medicines models because of climate change. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry 16(1):85-90.
Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Huang Q (2020b). Soybean seeds treated with single walled carbon naotubes (SwCNTs) showed enhanced drought tolerance during germination. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research 8(1):9-16.
Swamy KRM, Veere Gowda R (2006). Leek and shallot. Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 3:365-389.
Tesfa T, Woldestsadik K, Bayu W (2015). Shallot yield, quality and shelf-life as affected by nitrogen fertilizer. International Journal of Vegetable Science 21(5):454-466.
Teshika JD, Zakariyyah AM, Zaynab T, Zengin G, Rengasamy KRR, Pandian SK, Fawzi MM (2018). Traditional and modern uses of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.): a systematic review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1499074
Wang Y, Li C, Xiang L, Huang W, He X (2016). Spirostanol saponins from Chinese onion (Allium chinense) exert pronounced anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Journal of Functional Foods 25:208-219.
Wongmekiat O, Leelarugrayub N, Thamprasert K (2008). Beneficial effect of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) extract on cyclosporine nephrotoxivity in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46(5):1844-1850.
Yang MM, Xu C, Kim CH, Um YC, Bah AA, Guo DP (2009). Effects of explants type, culture media and growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration of Chinese jiaotou (Allium chinense). Scientia Horticulturae 123:124-128.
Yang C, Li L, Yang L, Lu H, Wang S, Sun G (2018). Anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of garlic oil and onion oil in rats fed a high-fat diet. Nutrition and Metabolism 15:43.
Yin M-C, Hsu P-C, Chang H-H (2006). In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of shallot and scallion. Journal of Food Science 68(1):281-284.
Yu Z, Zhang T, Zhou F, Xiao X, Ding X, He H, Rang J, Quan M, Wang T, Zuo M, Xia L (2015). Anticancer activity of saponins from Allium chinense against the B16 melanoma and 4T1 breast carcinoma cell. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015(725023):1-12.
Zhou Y, Zhuang W, Hu W, Liu GJ, Wu TX, Wu XT (2011). Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 141(1):80-89.
Zhu DY, Ma YL, Thakur K, Wang CH, Wang H, Ren YF, … Wei ZJ (2018). Effects of extraction methods on the rheological properties of polysaccharides from onion (Allium cepa L.). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 112:22-32.
Copyright (c) 2020 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.