Pharmacological Uses and Health Benefits of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Traditional Asian and Ancient Chinese Medicine, and Modern Practice
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used as a spice and a medicine for over 200 years in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginger is an important plant with several medicinal and nutritional values used in Asian and Chinese tradition medicine. Ginger and its general compounds such as Fe, Mg, Ca, vitamin C, flavonoids, phenolic compounds (gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione and shogaols), sesquiterpenes, paradols has long been used as an herbal medicine to treat various symptoms including vomiting, pain, cold symptoms and it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor activities, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-tumourigenic, anti-hyperglycaemic, antioxidant anti-diabetic, anti-clotting and analgesic properties, cardiotonic, cytotoxic. It has been widely used for arthritis, cramps, sprains, sore throats, rheumatism, muscular aches, pains, vomiting, constipation, indigestion, hypertension, dementia, fever and infectious diseases. Ginger leaves have also been used for food flavouring and Asian traditional medicine especially in China. Ginger oil also used as food flavouring agent in soft drink, as spices in bakery products, in confectionary items, pickles, sauces and as a preservatives. Ginger is available in three forms, namely fresh root ginger, preserved ginger and dried ginger. The pharmacological activities of ginger were mainly attributed to its active phytocompounds 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, zingerone beside other phenolics and flavonoids. Gingerol and shogaol in particular, is known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In both traditional Chinese medicine, and modern China, Ginger is used in about half of all herbal prescriptions. Traditional medicinal plants are often cheaper, locally available and easily consumable raw and as simple medicinal preparations. The obtained findings suggest potential of ginger extract as an additive in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Adib Rad H, Basirat Z, Bakouei F, Moghadamnia AA, Khafri S, Farhadi Kotenaei Z, … Kazemi S (2018). Effect of ginger and Novafen on menstrual pain: a cross-over trial. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 57(6):806-809.
Afzal M, Al-Hadidi D, Menon M, Pesek J, Dhami MS (2001). Ginger: an ethno-medical, chemical and pharmacological review. Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions 18(3-4):159-190.
Akinyemi AJ, Adedara IA, Thome GR, Morsch VM, Rovani MT, Mujica LKS, … Schetinger MRC (2015). Dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric improves reproductive function in hypertensive male rats. Toxicology Reports 2:1357-1366.
Akinyemi AJ, Oboh G, Ademiluyi AO, Boligon AA, Athayde ML (2016). Effect of two ginger varieties on arginase activity in hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 9(2):80-87.
Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen-Shalaby R, Ali M(2006). Anti-diabetic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. British Journal of Nutrition 96(4):660-666.
Aldhebiani AY, Elbeshehy EKF, Baeshen AA, Elbeaino T (2017). Inhibitory activity of different medicinal extracts from Thuja leaves, ginger roots, Harmal seeds and turmeric rhizomes against fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1) infecting figs in Mecca region. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 24(4):936-944.
Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, Nemmar A (2008). Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46(2):409-420.
Alakali J, Irtwange SV, Satimehin A (2009). Moisture adsorption characteristics of ginger slices. Food, Science and Technology 29(1):155-164.
Amri M, Touil-Boukoffa C (2016). In vitro anti-hydatic and immunomodulatory effects of ginger and -gingerol. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 9(8):749-756.
Atashak S, Peeri M, Azarbayjani MA, Stannard SR (2014). Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness 12(1):26-30.
Baliga MS, Haniadka R, Pereira MM, D,Souza JJ, Pallaty PL, Bhat HP, Popuri S (2011). Update on the chemo preventive effects of ginger and its phytochemicals. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 51(6):499-523.
Bartels EM, Folmer VN, Bliddal H, Altman RD, Julh C, Tarp S, … Christensen R (2015). Review, efficacy and safety of ginger in osteoarthritis patients: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 23(1):13-21.
Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J (2000). Herbal medicine: expanded commission E monographs. Austin TX: American Botanical Council; Newton MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, pp 153-159.
Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC (1997). Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 56(5):379-384.
Chan EWC, Lim Y, Wong S (2009). Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species. Food Chemistry 113(1):166-172.
Daily JW, Yang M, Kim DS, Park S (2015). Efficacy of ginger for treating Type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Ethnic Food 2(1):36-43.
Dehghani I, Mostajeran A, Asghari G (2011). In vitro and in vivo production of gingerols and zingiberene in ginger plant (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 7(2):129-133.
Dhanik J, Arya N, Nand V (2017). A review on Zingiber officinale. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6(3):174-184.
Dinesh R, Anandaraj M, Kumar A, Bini YK, Subila KP, Aravind R (2015). Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger. Microbiological Research 173:34-43.
Drozdov VN, Kim VA, Tkachenko EV, Varvanina GG (2012). Influence of a specific ginger combination on gastropathy conditions in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 18(6):583-588.
Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN (2010). Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of -gingerol, -gingerol, -gingerol and -shogaol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 172(2):525-520.
Ebrahimzadeh Attari V, Mahluji S, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Ostadrahimi A (2015). Effects of supplementation with Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on serum glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in obese women: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pharmaceutical Sciences 21(4):184-191.
El Makawy AI, Ibrahim FM, Mabrouk DM, Ahmed KA, Ramadan MF (2019). Effect of antiepileptic drug (Topiramate) and cold pressed ginger oil on testicular genes expression, sexual hormones and histopathological alterations in mice. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 110:409-419.
El Sayed SM, Moustafa RA (2016). Effect of combined administration of ginger and cinnamon on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences 3(4):561-572.
Elzebroek ATG, Wind K (2008). Guide to cultivated plants. CAB International Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, pp 276-279.
Eric Chan WC, Lim YY, Wong SK (2011). Antioxidant properties of ginger leaves: an overview. Free Radicals Research 1:6-16.
Fadaki F, Modaresi M, Sajjadian I (2017). The effects of ginger extract and diazepam on anxiety reduction in animal model. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research 51(3):S159-S162.
Gagnier JJ, Boon H, Rochon P, Barnes J, Moher D, Bombardier CB (2006). Reporting randomized controlled trials of herbal interventions: An elaborated CONSORT statement. Annals of Internal Medicine 155(5):364-367.
Gaire BP, Kwon OW, Park SH, Chun KH, Kim SY, Shin DY, Choi JW (2015). Neuroprotective effect of 6-paradol in focal cerebral ischemia involves the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses in activated microglia. PLoS One 10(3):e0120203.
Gaur M, Das A, Sahoo RK, Mohanty S, Joshi RK, Subudhi E (2016). Comparative transcriptome analysis of ginger variety Suprabha from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Genomics Data 9:42-43.
Ghayur MN, Gilani AH (2005). Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 45(1):74-80.
Ghayur MN, Gilani AH, Afridi MB (2005). Cardiovascular effects of ginger aqueous extract and its phenolic constituents are medicated through multiple pathways. Vascular Pharmacology 43(4):234-241.
Ghlissi Z, Atheymen R, Boujbiha MA, Sahnoun Z, Makni Ayedi F, Zeghal K, … Hakim A (2013). Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 64(8):974-978.
Gholampour F, Behzadi Ghiasabadi F, Owji SM, Vatanparast J (2017). The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 7(6):542-553.
Govindarajan VS (1982). Ginger-chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 1. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 17(1):1-96.
Grant KL, Lutz RB (2000). Ginger. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 57(10):945-947.
Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG (2005). Ginger- an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. Journal of Medicinal Food 8(2):125-132.
Hafez DA (2010). Effect of extracts of ginger roots and cinnamon bark on fertility of male diabetic rats. Journal of American Science 6(10):940-947.
Hasanah M, Sukarman, Rusmin D (2004). Ginger seed production technology. Technology Developments Spices and Medicinal 16(1):9-16.
Hosseini A, Mirazi N (2015). Alteration of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by chronic administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in male mice. Pharmaceutical Biology 53(5):752-757.
Islam K, Rowsni AA, Khan MM, Kabir MS (2014). Antimicrobial activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 3(3):867-871.
Jittiwat J, Wattanathorn J (2012). Ginger pharmacopuncture improves cognitive impairment and oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 5(6):295-300.
Kala C, Ali SS, Chaudhary S (2016). Comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of Costus speciosus (Wild Ginger) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) rhizome. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 8(4):19-23.
Karangiya VK, Savsani HH, Patil SS, Garg DD, Murthy KS, Ribadiya NK, Vekariya SJ (2016). Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers. Veterinary World 9(3):245-250.
Kathi JK (1999). Ginger (Zingiber officinale). The Longwood Herbal Task Force (http://www.mcp.edu/herbal/default.htm) and The Centre for Holistic Pediatric Education and Research (http://www.childrenshospital.org/holistic/).
Keys JD (1985). Chinese herbs (3rd Edn). Charles E Tuttle Company, Inc, Japan pp 77-78.
Khaki A, Farnam A, Badie AD, Nikniaz H (2012). Effects of onion (Allium cepa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on sexual behaviour of rat after inducing antiepileptic drug (lamotrigine). Balkan Medical Journal 3:236-242.
Kim SO, Kundu JK, Shin YK, Park JH, Cho MH, Kim TY, Surh YJ (2005). -Gingerol inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB in phorbol ester-stimulated mouse skin. Oncogene 24(15):2558-2567.
Kochhar A (1981). Tropical crops. A textbook of economic botany. London: McMillan Press, pp 268-270.
Kundu JK, Surh YJ (2009). Molecular basis of chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals: redox-regulated transcription factors as relevant targets. Phytochemistry Reviews 8(2):333-347.
Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J (1998). Ginger: history and use. Advances in Therapy 15(1):25-44.
Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Sarihan M, Solyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN (2007). The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine 14(2-3):123-128.
Lee SH, Cekanova M, Baek SJ (2008). Multiple mechanisms are involved in 6-gingerol-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 47(3):197-208.
Lister M (2003). Herbal medicine in pregnancy. Complement nursing and midwifery 9(1):49.
Maghbooli M, Golipour F, Esfandabadi MA, Yousefi M (2014). Comparison between the efficacy of ginger and sumatriptan in the ablative treatment of the common migraine. Phytotherapy Research 28(3):412-415.
Mahassni SH, Bukhari OA (2019). Beneficial effects of an aqueous ginger extract on the immune system cells and antibodies, hematology, and thyroid hormones in male smokers and non-smokers. Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism 15:10-17.
Mahmoud RH, Elnour WA (2013). Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of ginger and orlistat on obesity management, pancreatic lipase and liver peroxisomal catalase enzyme in male albino rats. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 17(1):75-83.
Malhotra S, Singh AP (2003). Medicinal properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Natural Product Radiance 2(6):296-301.
Manju V, Nalini N (2010). Effect of ginger on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced experimental colon carcinogenesis. Journal of Biochemical Technology 2(2):161-167.
Mascolo N, Jain R, Jain SC, Capasso F (1989). Ethno pharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 27(1-2):129-140.
Melati, Ilyas S, Palupi ER, Susila AD (2016). Growth, yield and quality of ginger from produced through early senescence. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 6(1):21- 28.
Memudu AE, Akinrinade ID, Ogundele OM, Duru F (2012). Investigation of the androgenic activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the histology of the testis of adult sparague dawley rats. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 3(11):697-702.
Mesomo MC, Scheer AP, Elisa P, Ndiaye PM, Corazza ML (2012). Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) extracts obtained using supercritical CO2 and compressed propane: kinetics and antioxidant activity evaluation. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 71:102-109.
Mishra RK, Kumar A, Kumar A (2012). Pharmacological activity of Zingiber officinale. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences 1(3):1422-1427.
Moghaddasi MS, Kashani HH (2012). Ginger (Zingiber officinale): a review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(26):4255-4258.
Naderi Z, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Dehghan A, Nadjarzadeh A, Fallah Huseini H(2016). Effect of ginger powder supplementation on nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in elderly knee osteoarthritis patients: A 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 6(3):199-203.
Niksokhan M, Hedarieh N, Maryam N, Masoomeh N (2014). Effect of hydro-alcholic extract of Pimpinella anisum seed on anxiety in male rat. Journal of Gorgan University Medical Science 16(4):28-33.
Nour AH, Yap SS, Nour AH (2017). Extraction and chemical compositions of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oils as cockroaches repellent. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 11(3):1-8.
Ogbaji PO, Li J, Xue X, Shahrajabian MH, Egrinya EA (2018). Impact of bio-fertilizer or nutrient solution on spinach (Spinacea oleracea) growth and yield in some province soils of P.R. China. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 2(174):43-52.
Ojewole JAO (2006). Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes in mice and rats. Phytotherapy Research 20(9):764-772.
Oludoyin AP, Adegoke SR (2014). Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on blood glucose in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2(2):32-35.
Palatty PL, Haniadka R, Valder B, Arora R, Baliga MS (2013). Ginger in the prevention of nausea and vomiting: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53(7):659-669.
Park GH, Park JH, Song HM, Eo HJ, Kim MK, Lee JW, … Jeong JB (2014). Anti-cancer activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) leaf through the expression of activating transcription factor 3 in human colorectal cancer cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14(1):408.
Peter KV (2000). Handbook of herbs and spices. RC Press Wood Head Publishing, Cambridge, pp 319.
Pongrojpaw D, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A (2007). A randomized comparison of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Journal-Medical Association of Thailand 90(9):1703.
Portnoi G, Chng LA, Karimi-Tabesh L, Koren G, Tan MP, Einarson A (2003). Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of giner for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 189(5):1374-1377.
Rahmani AH, Al Shabrmi FM, Aly SM (2014). Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology 6(2):125-136.
Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Dakhil SR, Kirshner J, Flynn PJ, … Morrow GR (2012). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCCCCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer 20(7):1479-1489.
Sakr SA, Badawy GM (2011). Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) on metiram-inhibited spermatogenesis and induced apoptosis in albino mice. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 1(4):131-136.
Sandeep S (2017). Commentary on therapeutic role of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as medicine for the whole world. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Chinese Medicine 1(1):1-3.
Schnitzer TK (2002). Update of ACR guidelines for osteoarthritis: role of the coxibs. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 23(4):S24-S30.
Schwertner HA, Rios DC (2007). High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in ginger containing dietary supplements, spices, teas, and beverages. Journal of Chromatography B 856(1-2):41-47.
Sekiwa Y, Kubota K, Kobayashi A (2000). Isolation of novel glycosides from ginger and their antioxidative activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(2):373-379.
Semwal RB, Semwal DK, Combrinck S, Viljoen AM (2015). Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger. Phytochemistry 117:554-568.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2018). A review of Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) in traditional Chinese medicine as a promising organic superfood and superfruit in modern industry. Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants 6(12):437-445.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019a). The influence of traditional Iranian and Chinese medicine on western and Islamic countries. Asia Journal of Medical and Biological Research 5(2):94-99.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019b). Modern pharmacological actions of longan fruits and their usages in traditional herbal remedies. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 7(4):179-185.
Shahrajabian MH, Khoshkharam M, Zandi P, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019c). Jujube, a super-fruit in traditional Chinese medicine, heading for modern pharmacological science. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 7(4):173-178.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019d). A review of ginseng species in different regions as a multipurpose herb in traditional Chinese medicine, modern herbology and pharmacological science. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 13(10):213-226.
Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2019e). Traditional Chinese medicine and agriculture; organic life and sustainability for future. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences 7(01):091-095.
Shahrajabian MH, Khoshkharam M, Zandi P, Sun W, Cheng Q (2020). The influence of temperatures on germination and seedling growth of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cineraiifolium) under drought stress. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research 8(1):29-39.
Sharma Y (2017). Ginger (Zingiber officinale)-an elixir of life a review. The Pharma Innovation Journal 6(10):22-27.
Shirin Adel PR, Prakash J (2010). Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale). JMPR 4(23):2674-2679.
Sinagra E, Matrone R, Gullo G, Catacchio R, Renda E, Tardino S, … Raimondo D (2017). Clinical efficacy of ginger plus B6 vitamin in hyperemesis gravidarum: report of two cases. Gastroenterol Hepatol Open Access 6(1):00182.
SingRP, Gangadharappa HV, Mruthunjaya K (2017). Ginger: a potential neutraceutical: an updated review. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 9(9):1227-1238.
Sivasothy Y, Wong KC, Hamid A, Eldeen IM, Sulaiman SF, Awang K (2011). Essential oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and their antibacterial activities. Journal of Food Chemistry 124(2):514-517.
Soltani E, Jangjoo A, Afzal Aghaei M, Dalili A (2018). Effects of preoperative administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 8(3):387-390.
Suekawa M, Ishige A, Yuansa K, Sudo K, Aburada M, Hosoya E (1984). Pharmacological studies on ginger pharmacological actions of pungent constituents of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. Journal of Pharmacobio-dynamics 7(11):836-848.
Surh YJ, Loe E, Lee JM (1998). Chemo preventive properties of some pungent ingredients present in red pepper and ginger. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 402(1-2):259-267.
Tan BKH, Vanitha J (2004). Immunomodulatory and antibacterial effects of some traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: a review. Current Medicinal Chemistry 11:1423-1430.
The Wealth of India (2001). A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products, first supplement series vol. II, New Delhi: National Institute of Science Communication CSIR 264-293.
Tjendraputra E, Tran VH, Liu-Brennan D, Roufogalis BD, Duke CC (2001). Effect of ginger constituents and synthetic analogues on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme in intact cells. Bioorganic Chemistry 29(3):156-163.
Toda K, Hitoe S, Takeda S, Shimoda H (2016). Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism. Heliyon 2(5):e00115.
Ursell A (2000). The complete guide to healing foods. Dorling Kindersley Ltd, London, pp 112-114.
USDA (2013). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 26 Full Report (All Nutrients) Nutrient data for 2013, Spices, Ginger.
Van Breemen RB, Tao Y, Li W (2011). Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in ginger (Zingiber officinale). Fitoterapia 82(1):38-43.
Vasala PA (2004). Ginger. (ed) Peter, K. V. Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Vol 1. Cochin, India.
Vemuri SK, Banala RR, Subbaiah GPV, Srivastava SK, Reddy AVG, Malarvili T (2017). Anti-cancer potential of a mix of natural extracts of turmeric, ginger and garlic: A cell-based study. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 4(4):332-344.
Viljoen E, Visser J, Koen N, Musekiwa A (2014). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting. Nutrition Journal 13(20):1-14.
Wei CK, Tsai YH, Korinek M, Hung PH, El-Shazly M, Cheng YB, … Chang FR(2017). 6-Paradol and 6-shogaol, the pungent compounds of ginger, promote glucose utilization in adipocytes and myotubes, and 6-paradol reduces blood glucose in high-fat diet-fed mice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18(1):168.
White B (2007). Ginger: an overview. American Family Physician 75(11):1689-1691.
Wolletts K, Ekangaki A, Eden JA (2003). Effect of a ginger extract on pregnancy-induced nausea: a randomised controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 43(2):139-144.
Wynn SG, Luna SPL, Liu H (2001). Global acupuncture research: previously untranslated studies. Studies from Brazil. Veterinary Acupuncture: Ancient Art to Modern Medicine, St Louis: Mosby, pp 53-57
Yadav S, Sharma PK, Aftab Alam Md (2016). Ginger medicinal and uses and benefits. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research 3(7):127-135.
Yassen D, Ibrahim AE (2016). Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus: a study in vitro. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 6(06):5830-5835.
Yilmaz N, Seven B, Timur H, Yorganci A, Inal HA, Kalem MN, … Bilezikci B (2018). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) might improve female fertility: A rat model. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 81(10):905-911.
Young HV, Luo YL, Chang HY, Haieh WC, Liao JC, Peng WC (2005). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 6-gingerol. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96(1-2):207-210.
Zaman SU, Mirje MM, Ramabhimaiah S (2014). Evaluation of the anti-ulcerogenic effect of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) root in rats. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 3(1):347-354.
Zhao X, Zingiber B, Yang WR, Yang Y, Wang S, Jiang Z, Zhang GG (2011). Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) on laying performance and antioxidant status of laying hens and on dietary oxidation stability. Poultry Science 90(8):1720-1727.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.