Tillage Practices in the Context of Climate Change and a Sustainable Viticulture
The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate options for maintenance of soil in vineyards located on flat land or mild slopes, and soils with a medium or high fertility. Tillage in the vineyard is carried out to preserve the soil loosening, for maintaining the humus and nutrients in soil, for activation of chemical and biological processes and last but not the least to maintain weed control. Choosing the most suitable system of vineyards floor management (middle rows, undervine, around vineyard) is a major problem which depends on preserving or enhancing soil fertility, improvement or worsening the soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics, ensuring water from soil and weed control. The experimental variants consisted of different practices of soil tillage, as follows: V1-bare row middles and grass strips/bare soil under vine; V2-bare soil/herbicides treatment under vine; V3-bare row middles/bare soil under vine; V4-bare row middles with ripped soil/bare soil under vine; V5- raw middles and grass strips/manual hoeing under vine; V6-bare row middles/rotary hoe under vine; V7-raw middles and grass strips/herbicides treatment under vine. Observations were made on ‘Burgund’ cultivar regarding buds viability, grape production, yield quality and sugar content. The highest yield per hectare was achieved in the soil with bare raw middles prepared with rotary hoe under vine (V6). On soils with moisture deficiency and a high content of clay, vineyards floor management is recommended to be maintained both under vine and on raw middles, as well with the adjustable rotary tiller.
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