Vermi degradation of different dietary supplements mediated on the reproduction and metabolic profile of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae


  • Manikandan ANUSHA Bharathiar University, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Department of Zoology, Coimbatore-641029, Tamil Nadu (IN)
  • Saravanan PREETHEE Bharathiar University, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Department of Zoology, Coimbatore-641029, Tamil Nadu (IN)
  • Kulandaivel SAMINATHAN Bharathiar University, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Department of Chemistry, Coimbatore- 641029, Tamil Nadu (IN)
  • Palanisamy KATHIRESWARI Bharathiar University, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Department of Zoology, Coimbatore-641029, Tamil Nadu (IN)
  • Sundaramoorthy ARUNMETHA KLEF Deemed to be University, Centre for Advanced Energy Studies, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Guntur, Andra Pradesh (IN)



Ficus religiosa, hatching success, Lawsonia inermis, reproductive capability, sperm count, sugarcane bagasse


Earthworm growth and reproduction is influenced by the environmental variables such as temperature, moisture, substrate and nutrient content in vermibed materials. By using different kind of dietary supplements with the conventional vermibed materials raise the development and reproductive potential of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. The current study evaluated on particular periods such as 10th, 45th, and 90th day in vermibins with dietary supplements in the ratio of 1:1 the 50% Ficus religiosa leaf litters + 50% cow dung (T1); 50% Lawsonia inermis leaf litters + 50% cow dung (T2); 50% sugarcane bagasse + 50% cow dung (T3) was used and 100% cow dung serves as control (C). Among these vermibins, T3 vermibin treated earthworms had the highest growth, reproduction, highest sperm count in the seminal vesicle, hatching success, and also increased the metabolic profile of earthworms such as protein, carbohydrate, and lipids in tissues and seminal vesicle. Compared to the other nutritional supplements, the present study result revealed that cow dung and sugarcane bagasse together have a significant positive impact on earthworm growth and reproduction. This study emphasized on the enhancement of the reproductive capacity of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae by incorporating different dietary supplements with the traditional vermicomposting methods. This also helps to analyse the influence of the metabolic profile in the growth and development and even on the reproductive index of the earthworm which is been observed on three different period: 10th, 45th and 90th day of experimentation. In the current research multi output can be ensured by integrating with production of crops, vermicompost, earthworm growth and waste management. This present study also represents that the open dumping of such a huge quantity of dung materials and plant and animal wastes will create environmental pollution and benefits for soil fertility improvement.


Metrics Loading ...


Banu RJ, Yeom IT, Esakkiraj Kumar N, Lee YW, Vallinayagam S (2008). Biomanagement of sago-sludge using an earthworm, Lampito mauritii. Journal of Environmental Biology 29:753-757.

Bhattacharjee G, Chaudhuri PS (2002). Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in seven tropical

earthworm species - A laboratory-based investigation. Journal of Bioscience 27:283-294.

Bourre J (2005). Enrichissement de l ’ alimentation des animaux avec les acides gras ω -3 Impact sur la valeur nutritionnelle de leurs produits pour l'homme. M/S: Médecine Sciences 21(8):773-779.

Bundy JG, Spurgeon DJ, Svendsen C, Hankard PK, Weeks JM, Osborn D, Nicholson JK (2004). Environmental metabonomics: applying combination biomarker analysis in earthworms at a metal contaminated site. Ecotoxicology 13:797-806.

Cikutovic MA, Fitzpatrick LC, Venables BJ, Goven AJ (1993). Sperm count in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as a biomarker for environmental toxicology: effects of cadmium and chlordane. Environmental Pollution 81:123-125.

Curry JP, Schmidt O (2007). The feeding ecology of earthworms - A review. Pedobiologia (Jena) 50:463-477.

Deepa A, Preethee S, Saminathan K, Kathireswari P (2022). Growth and reproduction of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae in Murraya koenigii leaf litter. Kongunadu Research Journal 9:9-16.

Deepthi MP, George J, Kathireswari P (2019). Influence of elephant dung on fecundity and growth rate of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 7:587-692.

Deepthi MP, Kathireswari P, Rini J, Saminathan K, Karmegam N (2021). Vermitransformation of monogastric Elephas maximus and ruminant Bos taurus excrements into vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Bioresources Technology 320:124302.

Dominguez J, Edwards CA, Dominguez J (2001). The biology and population dynamics of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) (Oligochaeta) in cattle waste solids. Pedobiologia 45(4):341-353.

Fernandez AL, El-Diasty MM, Martinez A, Alvarez J, García-Bengochea JB (2011). A simple technique to rule out occlusion of right coronary artery after aortic valve surgery. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 92:2281-2282.

Gajalakshmi S, Ramasamy EV, Abbasi SA (2005). Composting-vermicomposting of leaf litter ensuing from the trees of mango (Mangifera indica). Bioresources Technology 96:1057-1061.

George J, Palanisamy K, Kulandaivel S, Saravanan P, Peedika DM, Rajagopalan K, Kaliyannan MK (2023). Impact of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Survivability and Reproduction of Earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae and Its Compost Quality. BioNanoScience 1-11.

Givaudan N, Wiegand C, Le Bot B, Renault D, Pallois F, Llopis S, Binet F (2014). Acclimation of earthworms to chemicals in anthropogenic landscapes, physiological mechanisms and soil ecological implications. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 73:49-58.

Gupta KK, Aneja KR, Rana D (2016). Current status of cow dung as a bioresource for sustainable development. Bioresources and Bioprocess.

Gupta R, Garg, VK (2009). Vermiremediation and nutrient recovery of non-recyclable paper waste employing Eisenia fetida. Journal of Hazardous Materials 162:430-439.

Jatwani C, Gupta RK, Rai R, Bansal N (2016). Effects of Hg/Co toxicity in soil on biomolecules of earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Procedia Environmental Sciences 35:450-455.

Jensen KS, Holmstrup M (1997). Estimation of earthworm cocoon development time and its use in studies of in situ reproduction rates. Applied Soil Ecology 7:73-82.

Joseph R, Kathireswari P (2020). Efficacy leaf litters as substrate on reproductive potential of epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Indian Journal of Ecology 47:186-189.

Kale RD, Mallesh BC, Kubra B, Bagyaraj DJ (1992). Influence of vermicompost application on the available macronutrients and selected microbial populations in a paddy field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24:1317-1320.

Kathireswari P, Rini MH, Natchimuthu J, Kulandaivel K (2023). Toxic effect of Lawsonia inermis leaf litter on growth and reproduction of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 23:4532-4542.

Kautz T, Amelung W, Ewert F, Gaiser T, Horn R, Jahn R, Javaux M, Kemna A, Kuzyakov Y, Munch JC, Patzold S (2013). Nutrient acquisition from arable subsoils in temperate climates: A review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 57:1003-1022.

Kirkland D, Marzin D (2003). An assessment of the genotoxicity of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, the natural dye ingredient of Henna. Mutat. Res. - Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 537:183-199.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biology Chemistry 193:265-275.

Malmendal A, Overgaard J, Bundy JG, Sorensen JG, Nielsen NC, Loeschcke V, … Loeschcke V, (2006). Metabolomic profiling of heat stress : hardening and recovery of homeostasis in Drosophila. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 291:205-212.

Manca MC, Lama L, Improta R, Esposito E, Gambacorta A, Nicolaus B (1996). Chemical composition of two exopolysaccharides from Bacillus thermoantarcticus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:3265-3269.

Nagar MR, Titov DA, Bhati DP (2017). Vermicomposting of green Eucalyptus leaf litter by Eisenia foetida and Eudrilus eugenia. International Journal of Environmental, Agriculture Biotechnology 2:2811-2818.

Preethee S, Kathireswari P, Saminathan K (2023). Influence of sugarcane bagasse and animal dung on the fatty acid profile and its reproductive indices of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 1-12.

Preethee S, Kathireswari P, kumar Haripriya S, Sanofar MFA, Deepthi MP, Saminathan K (2021). Efficacy of vermicompost on growth of mulberry plant through air layering. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research 12:170-179.

Preethee S, Saminathan K, Chandran M, Kathireswari P (2022). Valorization of phyto-biomass with tertiary combination of animal dung for enriched vermicompost production. Environmental Research 215:114365.

Reinecke AJ, Viljoen SA, Saayman RJ (1992). The suitability of Eudrilus eugeniae, perionyx excavatus and Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta) for vermicomposting in southern africa in terms of their temperature requirements. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24:1295-1307.

Rini J, Deepthi MP, Saminathan K, Narendhirakannan RT, Karmegam N, Kathireswari P (2020). Nutrient recovery and vermicompost production from livestock solid wastes with epigeic earthworms. Bioresources Technology 313:123690.

Rombke J, Jänsch S, Didden W (2005). The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 62:249-265.

Ali S, Kashem MA (2018). Life cycle of vermicomposting earthworms Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae under laboratory-controlled condition. Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research 10:8110-8113.

Saravanan P, Palanisamy K, Kulandaivelu S (2022). Spectroscopic assessment of sugarcane bagasse mediated vermicompost for qualitative enrichment of animal wastes Elephus maximus and Bos taurus. Waste and Biomass Valorization.

Sharma K, Garg VK (2017). Management of food and vegetable processing waste spiked with buffalo waste using earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24:7829-7836.

Singh A, Karmegam, N, Singh, GS, Bhadauria T, Chang SW, Awasthi MK, Sudhakar S, Arunachalam KD, Biruntha M, Ravindran B (2020). Earthworms and vermicompost: an eco-friendly approach for repaying nature’s debt. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 42:1617-1642.

Singleton L (1957). The chemical structure of earthworm cuticle the cuticle of the earthworm (Allotobophora longa) is composed of fibres arranged in layers parallel to the surface, with the fibre directions in successive layers at right angles to each other 1. The Fibres 24:67-72.

Spurgeon DJ, Svendsen C, Rimmer RV, Hopkin SP, Weeks JM (2000). Relative sensitivity of life-cycle and biomarker responses in four earthworm species exposed to zinc. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:1800-1808.

Suthar S (2007a). Nutrient changes and biodynamics of epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) during recycling of some agriculture wastes. Bioresources Technology 98:1608-1614.

Suthar S (2007b). Production of vermifertilizer from guar gum industrial wastes by using composting earthworm Perionyx sansibaricus (Perrier). Environmentalist 27:329-335.

Suthar S, Ram S (2008). Does substrate quality affect earthworm growth and reproduction patterns in vermicomposting systems? A study using three popular composting earthworms. International Journal of Environmental Waste Management 2:584-600.

Tripathi G, Bhardwaj P (2004). Earthworm diversity and habitat preferences in arid of regions Rajasthan. Zoos’ Print Journal 19:1515-1519.

Vaidhegi, V, Saminathan K, Preethee S, Kathireswari P (2023). Vermi-acceleration on the degradation of cigarette butts and Nicotiana tabacum using earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 234(7):479.

Veena V, Kathireswari P, Preethee S, Saminathan K, Deepthi MP (2023). Detoxification of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil through vermicomposting and its impact on gut profile of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 234.

Yuvaraj A, Thangaraj R, Ravindran B, Chang SW, Karmegam N (2021). Centrality of cattle solid wastes in vermicomposting technology – A cleaner resource recovery and biowaste recycling option for agricultural and environmental sustainability. Environmental Pollution 268:115688.



How to Cite

ANUSHA, M., PREETHEE, S., SAMINATHAN, K., KATHIRESWARI, P., & ARUNMETHA, S. (2023). Vermi degradation of different dietary supplements mediated on the reproduction and metabolic profile of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 15(4), 11638.



Research articles
DOI: 10.55779/nsb15411638