Morphological characterization and cytological studies of the green-stemmed and the red-stemmed Basella alba
Keywords:bivalents chromosomes, descending dysploidy, malabar spinach, meiotic segregation, mitotic studies, underutilized vegetables
Basella alba is an underutilized vegetable with ethnobotanical importance used for culinary as well as medicinal purposes in many parts of the world. Morphological characterization and chromosome studies of the mitotic and meiotic cells of the green stemmed and the red-stemmed B. alba was carried out with a view to filling the knowledge gaps that exist in their morphological characterization and also to provide insightful information on their chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviour. The B. alba accessions studied were characterized with respect to their habit, leaves, inflorescence, fruits and seeds. Mitotic and meiotic studies were carried out on the Basella accessions using standard techniques. The morphological studies revealed significant differences between the green-stemmed and red-stemmed Basella alba with respect to the green/red colour of their stems, colour of the flower bud apex, mean plant height at flower bud initiation, mean leaf length, mean leaf width, mean petiole length, mean flower per spike, mean fruit length and mean fruit diameter. The cytological study revealed a chromosome number of 2n=4x=44 for both the green-stemmed and the red-stemmed B. alba studied. It also revealed the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations such as stickiness and precocious migration of chromosomes to the poles during meiosis, which could lead to irregular chromosome segregation that could result in chromosome instability and aberrant meiotic products within the species.
Adeyemi OR (2007). An investigation into some agronomic aspects of Basella alba production in Ondo State. In: Proceedings of the 1st National Conference of the School of Vocational and Technical Education, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Nigeria pp 15-21.
Bolaji AO, Adeniran OI, Awotunde A, Akinpelu BA (2019). Evaluation of chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of leaf and root extracts of Euphorbia graminae. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research 3:201-209. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v3i6.4
Bolaji AO, Oladejo AS, Adeniran OI (2022a). Reproductive biology of green-stemmed and red-stemmed Basella alba. Botanica 28(1):75-80. https://doi.org/10.35513/Botlit.2022.1.9
Bolaji AO, Oladejo AS, Elegbeleye OT, Ilori AC, Dauda NF (2022b). Molecular characterization of Basella alba L. and Basella rubra L. using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Profiling. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology Special Edition BSN-SW 1:51-57. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njb.v38i.5S
Chatchawal C, Nualkaew N, Preeprame S, Porasuphatana S, Priprame A (2010). Physical and biological properties of mucilage from Basella alba L. stem and its gel formulations. International Journal of Plant Science 6:104-112. https://doi.org/10.14456/ijps.2010.26
Dixit U, Goyal VC (2011). Traditional knowledge from and for elderly. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 10(3):429-438.
Focho DA, Nkeng EAP, Lucha CF, Ndam WT, Afegenui A (2009). Ethnobotanical survey of plants used to treat diseases of the reproductive system and preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Malvaceae in Ndop Central Sub-division, Cameroon. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 3:301-314.
Hanson L, Boyd A, Johnson MA, Bennett MD (2005). First nuclear DNA C-Values for 18 eudicot families. Annals of Botany 96:1315-1320. http://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci283
Henry AN, Kumari GR, Chithra V (1987.) Flora of Tamilnade, India. Series I, vol. 11. BSI, Southern circle, Coimbatore, India.
Idowu, JA, Oziegbe, M (2017). Mitotic and meiotic studies on two species of Ocimum (Lamiaceae) and their F1 hybrids. Botanica Lithuanica 23(1):59-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/botlit-2017-0006
Izonfuo WAL, Fekarurhobo GK, Obomanu FG, Daworiye LT (2006). Acid base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: dyes from Basella alba (Indian spinach) and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Journal of Applied Science and Environment Management 10 (1):5-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/JASEM.V10l1.17295
John B (1990). Meiosis (Development and cell biology series 22). Cambridge University Press, New York pp 412.
Kumar S, Prasad AK, Iyer SV, Vaidya SK (2013). Systematic pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological review on an ethnomedicinal plant, Basella alba L. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 5:53-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JPP12.0256
Mayrose I, Lysak MA (2020). The evolution of chromosome numbers: mechanistic models and experimental approaches. Genome Biology and Evolution 13:1-15. https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa220
Mendes-Bonato AB, Pagliarini MS, da Silva N, do Valle CB (2001). Meiotic instability in invader plants of signal grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (Gramineae). Acta Scientiarum 23:619-625.
Murphy SP, Bass HW (2012). The maize (Zea mays) desynaptic (dy) mutation defines a pathway for meiotic chromosome segregation, linking nuclear morphology, telomere distribution and synapsis. Journal of Cell Science 125:3681-3690. https://doi.org/10.1242/jsc.108290
Olowokudejo JD, Kadiri AB, Travih VA (2008). An ethnobotanical survey of herbal markets and medicinal plants in Logos State of Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12:851-865.
Ozela EF, Stringhetia PS, Clauca MC (2007). Stability of anthocyanin in spinach vine (Basella rubra) fruits. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria 34:115-120. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202007000200004
Palada MC, Chang LC (2003). International Co-operators guide: “Suggested cultural practices for Basella”, Asian vegetable research and development centre. (AVRDC Newsletter).
Palada MC, Crossman MA (1999). Evaluation of tropical leaf vegetables in the Virgin Islands: Perspectives on new crops and new uses, ASHS press, Alexandria, V.A pp 388-393.
Paul AK, Arif HA, Seraj S, Nahar A, Nasrin D, Chowdhury MH, … Rahmatullah M (2011). A survey of plant items eaten by the low-income groups of the rural population of Talbunia village in Bagerhat District, Bangladesh with an account of their folk medicinal applications. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 5:132-144.
Pessim C, Pagharini MS, Silva N, Jank L (2015). Chromosome stickiness impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in Panicum maximum (Poaceae) hybrid plants. Genetics and Molecular Research 14(2):4195-4202. https://dx.doi.org/10.4238/2015
Potapovo T, Gorbsky GJ (2017). The consequences of chromosome segregation errors in mitosis and meiosis. Biology 62(2):1-33. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology6010012
Rahmatullah M, Rahman A, Haque Z, Mollik AH, Emdad ZUM, Miajee U, … Khatun A (2010). A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Station Purbo Para Village of Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in Jamalpur district, Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 4:122-135.
Roy SK, Gangopadhyay G, Mukherjee KK (2010). Is stem twinning form of B. alba L. a naturally occurring variant. Current Science 98:1370-1375.
Saroj V, Rao PS, Rao SK, Krunal S (2012). Pharmacognostical study of Basella alba stem. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences 3(3):1093-1094.
Shantha TR, Patchaimal P, Prathapa M, Kumar R, Tewari D, Bharti V, Venkateshwarlu G, Mangal AK, Padhi MM, Dhiman KS (2016). Pharmacognostical Standardization of Upodika-Basella alba Linn: An Important Ayurvedic Antidiabetic Plant. Ancient Science of life 36(1):35-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0257-7941.195411
Silva LFL, Techio VH., Resende L, Braz GT, Resende KFM, Samartini CQ (2017). Unconventional vegetables collected in Brazil: chromosome number and description of nuclear DNA content. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 17:320–326. https://doi.org/10.1590/1984-70332017v17n4a49
Singh PK, Kumar V, Tiwari RK, Sharma A, Rao CV, Singh RH (2010). Medico-ethnobotany of Chatara block of district Sonebhadara, Uttar Pradesh, India. Advances in Biological Research 4:65-80.
Sperling CR, Bittrich V (1993). Basellaceae. Flowering plants: dicotyledons. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 10.
Tiang C, He Y, Pawlowski WP (2012). Chromosome organisation and dynamics during interphase, mitosis and meiosis in plants. Plant Physiology 158:26-34. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.111.187161
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Abolade O. BOLAJI, Atanda S. OLADEJO, Oluwatobi I. ADENIRAN
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.