Leaf growth traits and photosynthetic pigments of maize as influenced by water deficit stress

  • Folake B. ANJORIN Institute of Agricultural Research& Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan
Keywords: leaf area; leaf weight; plant extract; specific leaf weight; total chlorophyll

Abstract

Glasshouse study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of water deficit stress (WDS) on leaf growth and photosynthetic pigments of four maize varieties at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. Seeds from ‘TZPBSR-W’, ‘ILE1OB’, ‘ART98SW6OB’ and ‘DTESYNSTR’ maize varieties were sown in sixty-four pots in a 4 x 4 factorial CR Design(r=4). The WDS treatments include 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacities (FC). Data were taken weekly on specific leaf weight (SLW), leaf area (LA), leaf weight (LWT) and crop growth rate. At four weeks of WDS, extracts were obtained from 0.2 g cut leaf sample using 96% (v/v) ethanol. Light absorbance of the ethanolic leaf extract (cholorophyll-a (665 nm), chlorophyll-b (649 nm), total chlorophyll and the carotenoids (440 nm)) were read using spectrophotometer. From the results, WDS significantly reduced SLW, LWT, LA and CGR (p<0.001). The SLW ranged from 0.027±0.0 (g cm-2) (‘ART98SW6OB’) to 0.034±0.0 (g cm-2) (‘DTESYNSTR’), while the LA ranged from 269.7±25.4 (cm2) (‘ART98SW6OB’) to 220.9±20.9 (cm2) (‘ILE1OB’). Water deficit stress significantly reduced chlorophyll-b (p<0.01), chlorophyll-a and total chlorophyll (p<0.001) and the carotenoid (p<0.05). Chlorophyll-a ranged from 0.038±0.0 mg/g (‘DTESYNSTR’) to 0.050±0.0 mg/g (‘TZPBSR-W’), chlorophyll-b ranged from 0.021 mg/g (‘ART98SW6OB’) to 0.040 mg/g (‘TZPBSR-W’), total chlorophyll ranged from 0.063±0.0 mg/g (‘ART98SW6OB’) to 0.093±0.0 mg/g (‘TZPBSR-W’), while the carotenoid ranged from 0.084±0.08 mg/g (‘ART98SW6OB’) to 0.115±0.09 mg/g (‘TZPBSR-W’). The WDS and Variety interaction on photosynthetic pigments were significant (p<0.05). The Leaf growth traits, photosynthetic pigments and over all crop growth in maize are impaired when subjected to water deficit stress.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Aggarwal PK, Sinha SK (1984). Differences in water relations and physiological characteristics in leaves of wheat associated with leaf position on the plant. Plant Physiology 74:1041-1045. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.74.4.1041

Ahamadizadeh M, Valizadeh M, Shahbazi H, Nori A (2012). Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in the greenhouse. African Journal of Biotechnology 11:1912-1923. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.2370

Anjum F, Yaseen M, Rasul E, Wahid A, Anjum SA (2003a). Water stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). I. Effect on morphological character. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 40:43-44.

Anjum F, Yaseen M, Rasul E, Wahid A Anjum S (2003b). Water stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). I. Effect on chemical composition and chlorophyll contents. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 40:45-49.

Anjum SA, Xie X, Wang L, Saleem MF, Man C, Wang L (2011). Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(9):2026-2032.

Ashraf MY, Azmi AR, Khan AH, Ala SA (1994). Effect of water stress on total phenols, peroxidase activity and chlorophyll content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under soil water deficits. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 16:185-191.

Britton G (1983). The biochemistry of natural pigments. Cambridge University Press, pp 133-140.

Brown SB, Houghton JD, Hendry GAF (1991. Chlorophyll breakdown. In: Scheer H (Ed). Chlorophylls. Boca Raton, CRC Press, pp 465-489.

Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J, Rodriques ML, Ricardo ML, Osorio ML, … Pinheiro C (2002). How plants cope with water stress in the field photosynthesis and growth? Annals of Botany 89:907-916. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf105

Costache MA, Campeanu G, Neata G (2012). Studies concerning the extraction of chlorophyll and total carotenoids from vegetables. Romanian Biotechnology Letters 17(5):7702-7708.

Estill K, Delaney RH, Smith WK, Ditterline RL (1991). Water relations and productivity of alfalfa leaf chlorophyll variants. Crop Science 31:1229-1233. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1991.0011183X003100050030x

Fageria NK, Baligar VC, Ralph BC (2006). Physiology of crop production. CRC Press, pp 345.

Farooq M, Basra SMA, Wahid A, Cheema ZA, Cheema MA, Khaliq A (2008). Physiological role of exogenously applied glycinebetaine in improving drought tolerance of fine grain aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 194(5):325-333.

Francis CA, Rutger JN, Palmer AFE (1969). A rapid method for plant leaf area estimation in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Science 9(5):537-539.

Guendouz A, Semcheddine N, Moumeni L, Hafsi M (2016). The effect of supplementary irrigation on leaf area, specific leaf weight, grain yield and water use efficiency in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars. Ekin Journal of Crop Breeding and Genetics 2(1):89-82.

Hadley CW, Miller EC, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK (2002). Tomatoes, lycopene, and prostate cancer: progress and promise. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227:869-880. https://doi.org/10.1177/153537020222701006

Havaux M (1998). Carotenoids as membrane stabilizers in chloroplasts. Trends in Plant Science 3:147-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(98)01200-X

Jain M, Mittal M, Gadre R (2013). Effect of PEG-6000 imposed water deficit on chlorophyll metabolism in maize leaves. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry 9(3):262-271.

Jeyaramraja PR, Meenakshi SN, Kumar RS, Joshi SD, Ramasubramanian B (2005). Water deficit induced oxidative damage in tea (Camellia sinensis) plants. Journal of Plant Physiology 162:413-419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2004.09.004

Kiani SP, Maury P, Sarrafi A, Grieu P (2008). QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Science 175:565-573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.06.002

Lahlou O, Ouattar S, Ledent JF (2003). The effect of drought and cultivar on growth parameters, yield and yield components of potato. Agronomie 23:257-268. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2002089

Landsberg J (1990). Dieback of rural eucalypts: Does insect herbivory relate to dietary quality of tree foliage? Australian Journal of Ecology 15:73-87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.1990.tb01022.x

Lawlor D, Cornic WG (2002). Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolic in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant, Cell and Environment 25:275-294. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2001.00814.x

Lichtenthaler HK (1987). Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology 148:350-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1

Liz B (2013). The importance of chlorophyll in our diets. www.naturalbody

Martinez JP, Silva H, Ledent JF, Pinto M (2007). Effect of drought stress on the osmotic adjustment, cell wall elasticity and cell volume of six cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL.). European Journal of Agronomy 26:30-38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2006.08.003

Massacci A, Nabiev SM, Pietrosanti L, Nematov SK, Chernikova TN, Thor K, Leipner J (2008). Response of the photosynthetic apparatus of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to the onset of drought stress under field conditions studied by gas-exchange analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 46:189-195 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.10.006

Misra AN (1995). Assimilate partitioning in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.R.Br.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 17:41-46.

Monakhova OF, Chernyadev II (2002). Protective role of kartolin-4 in wheat plants exposed to soil drought. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 38:373-380. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016243424428

Munamava M, Riddoch I (2001). Responses of three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.), Moench] varieties to soil moisture stress at different developmental stages. South African Journal of Plant Soil 18:75-79. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016243424428

Nam NH, Chauhan YS, Johansen C (2001). Effect of timing of drought stress on growth and grain yield of extra-short-duration pigeon pea lines. The Journal of Agricultural Science 136:179-189. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859601008607

Nam NH, Subbaroa GV, Chauhan YS Johansen C (1998). Importance of canopy attributes in determining dry matter accumulation of pigeon pea under contrasting moisture regimes. Crop Science 38:955-961. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1998.0011183X003800040013x

Nayek S, Choudhury IH, Jaishee N, Roy S (2014). Spectrophotometric analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from commonly grown fern species by using various extracting solvents. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences 4(9):63-69.

Nazarli H, Faraji F (2011). Effect of irrigation regimes on proline, soluble sugar, cat and apx activity in wheat. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova 44(4):148. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10298-012-0046-1

Nir S, María del Mar R, Kamolchanok U, Eduardo B (2018). Stress-induced senescence and plant tolerance to abiotic stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 69(4):845-853. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erx235

Niyogi KK (1999). Photo protection revisited: genetic and molecular approaches. Annual Review of Plant Biology 50:333-359. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.333

Noctor G, Mhamdi A, Foyer CH (2014). The roles of reactive oxygen metabolism in drought: not so cut and dried. Plant Physiology 164(4):1636-1648. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.233478

Pearce RB, Brown RH, Balster RE (1968). Photosynthesis of alfalfa leaves as influenced by age and environment. Crop Science 6:677-680. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1968.0011183X000800060011x

Porra RJ (1991). Recent advances and re-assessments in chlorophyll extraction and assay procedures for terrestrial, aquatic, and marine organisms, including recalcitrant algae. In: Scheer H (Ed.) Chlorophylls. pp 31-57

Porra RJ, Thompson WA, Kriedemann PE (1989). Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics 975:384-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2728(89)80347-0

Reddy AR, Chaitanya KV, Vivekanandan M (2004). Drought induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology 161:1189-1202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2004.01.013

Roetman E, Sterk A A (1986) Growth of microspecies of different sections of Taraxacum in climatic chambers. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 35(1):5-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.1986.tb00442.x

Sacks MM, Silk WK, Burman P (1997). Effect of water stress on cortical cell division rates within the apical meristem of primary roots of maize. Plant Physiology 114:519-527. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.2.519

Scott RK, Jaggard KW (1978). Theoretical criteria for maximum yield. Proceedings of the 41st Winter Congress of the International Institute for Sugar Beet Research, Brussels, Belgium, pp 179-198.

Specht JE, Chase K, Macrander M, Graef GL, Chung J, Markwell JP, … Lark KG (2001). A QTL analysis of drought tolerance. Crop Science 41:493-509. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2001.412493x

Thompson JA, Schweitzer LE, Nelson RL (1996). Association of specific leaf weight, an estimate of chlorophyll, and chlorophyll concentration with apparent photosynthesis in soybean. Photosynthesis Research 49:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00029422

Tourneux C, Devaux A, Camacho MR, Mamani P, Ledent JF (2003a). Effect of water shortage on six potato genotypes in the highlands of Bolivia (II): water relations, physiological parameters. Agronomie 23:181-190. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2002080

Vechetel BW, Ruppel HG (1992). Lipid bodies in Eremosphaera viridis De Bary (Chlorophyceae). Plant and Cell Physiology 31:41-48.

Vicas SI, Laslo V, Pantea S, Bandict GE (2010). Chlorophyll and carotenoids pigments from mistletoe (Viscum album) leaves using different solvents. Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie 2:213-218.

Wintermans JF, de Mots A (1965). Spectrophotometric characteristics of chlorophylls a and b and their pheophytins in ethanol. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biophysics including Photosynthesis 109(2):448-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/0926-6585(65)90170-6

Yang CM, Chang KW, Yin MH, Hung HM (1998). Methods for the determination of the chlorophylls and their derivatives. Taiwania 43:116-122.

Zayed MA, Zeid IM (1997/98). Effect of water and salt stresses on growth, chlorophyll, mineral Ions and organic solute contents and enzymes activity in mung bean seedlings. Biologia Plantarum 40(3):351-356. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1001057728794

Zhang M, Duan L, Zhai Z, Li J, Tian X, Wang B, … Li Z (2004). Effects of plant growth regulators on water deficit-induced yield loss in soybean. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia, pp 252-256.

Published
2020-06-29
How to Cite
ANJORIN, F. B. (2020). Leaf growth traits and photosynthetic pigments of maize as influenced by water deficit stress. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 12(2), 366-375. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb12210705
Section
Research articles