Bioremediation of Phenol by Mutated and Immobilized Aspergillus and Penicillium Species
Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates epoxies, bakelite, nylon, detergents, herbicides, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs. In order to increase the biodegradation of phenol by fungi, fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium griseofulvum and Aspergillus terreus), were isolated from different contaminated sites in Saudi Arabia such as Jeddah Governate, the second industrial city of Jeddah, some garbage collection places, gas stations and Red Sea), then screened for phenol degradation. For the first time in Saudi Arabia, biodegradation of phenol by fungi is improved by mutation as well as immobilization of fungi above calcium alginate. The isolated fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium griseofulvum and Aspergillus terreus), were mutated physically (UV) and chemically (Ethidium bromide), also immobilized in alginate beads and its phenol degradation efficiency was observed. The degradation was increased many fold after immobilization, but after mutation some mutants appeared highly degradation rate for the phenol such as Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium griseofulvum but Aspergillus terreus appeared highly degradation rate for the phenol only after exposure to UV for 5 and 10 mins only than the wild strains. In addition, phenol degradation was increased with increase the fungal disk size of the tested strains.
Abd El-Zaher F, Mahmoud G, Aly M (2011). Effect of different concentrations of phenol on the growth of some fungi isolated from contaminated soil. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(8):1384-1392.
Acosta CA, LÃ³pez PCE, Paniagua G, GarcinuÃ±o RM, FernÃ¡ndez HP (2018). Evaluation of total phenol pollution in water of San Martin Canal from Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Environmental Pollution 236:265-272.
Adjei MD, Ohta Y (2000). Factors affecting the biodegradation of cyanide by Burkholderia epacian strain C-3. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 89:274-277.
Agarry SE, Durojaiye AO, Solomon BO (2008). Microbial degradation of phenols: a review. International Journal of Environment and Pollution 32:12-28.
Alexander M (1985). Biodegradation of organic chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology 18:106-111.
Ãlvarez-Torrellas S, Martin-Martinez M, Gomes HT, Ovejero G, GarcÃaa J (2017). Enhancement of p-nitrophenol adsorption capacity through N2-thermal-based treatment of activated carbons. Applied Surface Science 414:424-434.
Amim Jr J, Petri DFS, Maia FCB, Miranda PB (2010). Ultrathin cellulose ester films: preparation, characterization and protein immobilization. QuÃmica Nova 33(10):2064-2069.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) ( 2007). Notice of the revised priority list of hazardous substances that will be the subject of toxicological profiles.
Balamurugan AN, Loganathan G, Bellin MD, Wilhelm JJ, Harmon J, Anazawa T, â€¦ Hering BJ (2012). A new enzyme mixture to increase the yield and transplant rate of autologous and allogeneic human islet products. Transplantation 93(7):693.
Bodalo A, Gomez JL, Gomez M, Leon G, Hidalgo AM, Ruiz MA (2008). Phenol removal from water by hybrid processes: study of the membrane process step. Desalination 223(1-3):323-329.
Busca G, Berardinelli S, Resini C, Arrighi L (2008). Technologies for the removal of phenol from fluid streams: A short review of recent developments. Journal of Hazardous Material 160:265-288.
Chen J, Yang QY, Huang TP, Zhang YK, Ding RF (2011). Enhanced bioremediation of soil contaminated with viscous oil through microbial consortium construction and ultraviolet mutation. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 27:1381-1389.
Covizzi LG, Giese EC, Gomes E, Dekker RFH, Silva R (2007). Immobilization of microbial cells and their biotechnological applications. Semina: CiÃªncias Exatas TecnolÃ³gicas 28:143-160.
Doran PMA, Baily JE (1986). Effect of immobilization on growth, fermentation properties, and macromolecular composition of Saccharomyces cervisiae attached to gelatin. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 28:73-87.
Downs JW, Wills BK (2019). Phenol toxicity Book. Stat Pearls Publishing LLC.
EL-Bondkly A, Keera A (2007). UV- and EMS- induced mutations affecting synthesis of alkaloids and lipase in Penicillium roquefortii. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 10(2):241-248.
Freeman A, Lilly MD (1998). Effect of processing parameters on the feasibility and operational stability of immobilized viable microbial cells. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 23:335-345.
Germain T, Lynda E, Tchirioua E (2019). Adsorption of phenol on carbon based on cactus and banana peel. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 13(1):64-70.
Ibrahim GA, EL-Gamdi SL (2019). Characterization of fungi that able to degrade phenol from different contaminated areas in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Biological Sciences 19:210-217.
Jacob HJ, Sohail A (2010). Isolation of two fungal strains capable of phenol biodegradation. Journal of Biological Sciences 10:162-165.
Jayachandran VP, Kunhi AAM (2008). Degradation of 3-chlorobenzoate and phenol singly and in mixture by a mixed culture of two orthopathway- following Pseudomonas strains. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 5:120-122.
Joshi DR, Zhang Y, Tian Z, Gao Y, Yang M (2016). Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 100(18):8191-8202.
Katrcolul H, Aslm B, Nur ZY, Mercan N, Beyatl Y (2003). Production of poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and differentiation of putative Bacillus mutant strains by SDS-PAGE of total cell protein. African Journal of Biotechnology 2:147-149.
Leonard D, Lindley ND (1998). Carbon and energy flux constraints in continuous cultures of Alcaligenes eutrophus grown on phenol. Microbiology 144:241-248.
Marrot B, Barrios-Martinez A, Moulin P, Roche N (2006). Biodegradation of high phenol concentration by activated sludge in an immersed membrane bioreactor. Biochemical Engineering Journal 30:174-183.
Mohanty SS, Jena HM (2016). Biodegradation of phenol by free and immobilized cells of a novel Pseudomonas sp. NBM11. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 34(1):75-84.
Moyo M, Mutare E, Chigondo F, Nyamunda B (2012). Removal of phenol from aqueous solution by adsorption on yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 11:486-494.
Mrudula S, Shyam N (2012). Immobilization of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 2444 by Ca-alginate entrapment method for enhanced alkaline protease production. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 55:135-144.
Nair CI, Jayachandran K, Shashidhar S (2008). Biodegradation of phenol. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(25):4951-4958.
Rappoport ZVI (2003). The chemistry of phenols. Edited by Zvi. Rappoport. The Hebrew University, Jerusalem Ltd.
Rittmann BE, McCarty PL (2001). Environmental biotechnology: principles and applications. McGraw-Hill Education. New York.
Rudzanova D, LuptÃ¡kovÃ¡ A, Macingova E (2019). The possibilities of using sulphate-reducing bacteria for phenol degradation. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing 55(5):1148-1155.
Saluja M (2015). Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading organisms from soil sample containing traces of crude oil. Rourkela-769008 http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/7950/1/2015_Isolation_Saluja.pdf.
Sambrook J, Russell D (2001). Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 3rd. ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York.
Sekar S, Sivaprakasam S, Mahadevan S (2009). Investigations on ultraviolet light and nitrous acid induced mutations of halotolerant bacterial strains for the treatment of tannery soak liquor. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 63:176-181.
Supriya CH, Neeha D (2014). Biodegradation of phenol by Aspergillus niger. Journal of Pharmacy 4(7):11-17.
Thu B, Smidsrod O, Skjak-Break G (1996). Progress in biotechnology, immobilized cells: basics and application. Biotechnology Annual Review 19-31.
Van Schie PM, Young LY (1998). Isolation and characterization of phenol-degrading denitrifying bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(7):2432-2438.
Wei G, Yu J, Zhu Y, Chen W, Wang L (2008). Characterization of phenol degradation by Rhizobium sp. CCNWTB 701 isolated from Astragalus chrysopteru in mining tailing region. Journal of Hazardous Materials 151:111-117.
Wiesel I, Wubker SM, Rehm HJ (1993). Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by an immobilized mixed bacterial culture. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 39:110-116.
Zhen M, Chenyang Y, Lingling X (2015). Enhancement of phenol biodegradation by Pseudochrobactrum sp. through ultraviolet-Induced mutation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16:7320-7333.
Zumriye A, Gultac B (1999). Determination of the effective diffusion coefficient of phenol in calcium alginate immobilized Pseudomonas putida. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 25:344-348.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.