Genetic Polymorphism of the Wild and In vitro Regenerated Plants of the Medicinal Grass Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus
Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus grows wild in subtropical Africa, Sudan and Egypt. The species is heavily collected for its use in folk medicine and drug production. A wild population from south Egypt was used to determine preliminary genetic polymorphism within the species, using nineteen ISSR, fourteen RAPD and seven cpSSR primers. Three regeneration systems, somatic embryogenesis (SE), direct organogenesis (D), and indirect organogenesis (ID), were established from seed explants of the same population and polymorphism within regenerated plants was determined. ISSR generated a total of 222 amplified fragments for all genotypes, while RAPDs and cpSSR yielded 139 and 34 fragments, respectively. Wild plants showed an average low polymorphism for all marker types of 45.8%. Regenerated plants polymorphism was also low (SE=44.6, D=44, ID=46.2%). ISSR and cpSSR markers were more sensitive in elucidating polymorphism (51.5 and 46.87%) than RAPD (37.85%). ISSR was the most significant marker in producing unique bands, for the wild genotypes (6), SE (7), D (5) and ID (6). cpSSR followed producing 4 for wild genotypes, 6 for SE, 3 for D and 6 for ID organogenesis. Unweighted pair group with arithmetic average (UPGMA) clustering analysis and Jaccard’s similarity data suggested that wild plants and those regenerated through somatic embryogenesis and direct organogenesis are more similar. The study elucidated low polymorphism within both the wild population and regenerated genotypes, with plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis and direct organogenesis being more similar to wild plant genotypes, suggesting their future use in studies with genetic transformation and ex-situ conservation of the species.
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