The Effects of Wheat Flour and Barley Flour on the Quality and Properties of Biscuits Colored with Synthetic and Natural Colorants

  • Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI 1. Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biochemistry Department, P. Box 12613, Gamma St, Giza, Cairo 2. King Faisal University, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Agriculture Biotechnology Department, P.O. Box 420, Alhassa 31982, (EG)
  • Abeer A. AMER Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza (EG)
  • Rehab F. M. ALI 1. Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biochemistry Department, P. Box 12613, Gamma St, Giza, Cairo 2. Al-Qassim University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Qassim (EG)
  • Somia M. MOUSA Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza (EG)
  • Emam ABDEL-RAHIM Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biochemistry Department, P. Box 12613, Gamma St, Giza, Cairo (EG)
Keywords: biscuit, chemical composition, natural colors, physical and sensory characteristics, synthetic colors


Biscuit is one of the most popular processed ready to eat snacks that have possesses several attractive features including wide consumer base, relatively less expensive, more convenient with long shelf-life and have ability to serve as vehicles for important nutrients. It’s usually available in different sizes, tastes and shapes.  It can also be enriched or fortified with other ingredients in order to meet specific nutritional or therapeutic needs of consumers. In recent years, numerous studies have shown the potential of utilizing natural plant such as green leafy vegetable in cookies and biscuit production; the potential of amaranthus leaves used as a source of iron and β-carotene inpakora, vada, namakpal, kurmure, biscuit and cake. The present research was carried out to throw the light on the effect of wheat flour and barley flour with natural and synthetic colors to improve chemical composition, the nutritional value and quality characteristics of producing biscuits. The results indicate that that treatment 100% barley flour 72% with turmeric and cocoa as a natural colors recorded a significant increase in the content of protein, ash, minerals such as iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium and some physical analysis like weight, volume, density as well as sensory evaluation. As compared with wheat flour 72% and synthetic color tartrazine ADI 7.5 mg/ and chocolate brown ADI 0.15 mg/ In conclusion, results showed that barley flour improved nutritional quality, physical characteristics and sensory characteristics of produce biscuit with mixture natural and natural color.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdel-Rahim EA, Ahmed EA, El-Desoky GE, Ramadan ME (1987). Biochemical role of some natural and synthetic colorants on liver function of rats. Minia Journal of Agriculture Research and Development 9:11-17.

Ajibola CF, Oyerinde VO, Adeniyan OS (2015). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of whole-wheat biscuits incorporated with Moringa oleifera leaves and cocoa powder. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 7(3):195-206.

Ammon H, Wahl MA (1991). Biological activities of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Planta Medica 57:1-7.

AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists 17 Ed., Washington, D.C., USA.

Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, ... Stevenson J (2007). Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial. Lancet 370(9598):1560-1567.

Boskou D, Dusemund B, Gott D (2010). Panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food (ANS), scientific opinion on the reevaluation of curcumin (E 100) as a food additive. European Food Safety Authority Journal 8(9):1943-1983.

Brennan CS, Cleary LJ (2005). The potential use of cereal (1-3), (1-4)-(β-d-glucans as functional food ingredients. Journal of Cereal Science 42(1):1-13.

Dahab DB (2006). Utilization of different cereal flour mixes in the preparation of some Bakery products. M.Sc Thesis, Food Sci. and Technol. Dept, Fac. Agric, Cairo Univ, Egypt.

Desai AD, Kulkarni SS, Sahoo AK, Ranveer RC, Dandge PB (2010). Effect of supplementation of malted ragi flour on the nutritional and sensorial quality characteristics of cake. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 2(1):67-71.

Drisya CR, Swetha BG, Velu V, Indrani D, Singh RP (2015). Effect of dried Murraya koenigiileaves on nutritional, textural and organoleptic characteristics of cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(1):500-506.

El-Beltagi HS, Abdel-Rahim EA (2017). Biochemical changes in fatty acids, hydrocarbons and sterols as well as total lipids of albino rats ingested some synthetic colourants and flavourants as food additives. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 9(1):40-47.

FAO/WHO (1985). Food Additives Data System, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 30/Rev.1.

Farhath K, Sudaeshanakrishna, KR, Semwal AD, Vishwanathan KR, Khanum F (2001). Proximate composition and mineral contents of spices. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 38:93-97.

Feng J, Cerniglia CE, Chen H (2012). Toxicological significance of azo dye metabolism by human intestinal microbiota. Frontiers in Bioscience Journal 4(4):568-586.

Freund F, Kim MY (2006). Future of flour: A compendium of flour improvement. In: Popper L, Schäfer W, Freund W (Eds.), Clenze, Germany, pp 101-116.

Gyedu-Akoto E, Laryea D (2013). Evaluation of cassava flour in the production of cocoa powder-based biscuits. Nutrition and Food Science 43(1):55-59.

Hassan A, Nagwa M, Mervat I, Wafaa K (2012). Production of functional biscuits for lowering blood lipids. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences 7(1):1-20.

Jackson FJ, Read JI, Lucas BE (1980). Determination of total chromium, cobalt and silver in food stuffs by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Analyst 105(1249):359-370.

Karl JP, Saltzman E (2012). The role of whole grains in body weight regulation. Advances in Nutrition 3(5):697-707.

King RA, Noakes M, Bird AR, Morell MK, Topping DL (2008). An extruded breakfast cereal made from a high amylose barley cultivar has a low glycemic index and lower plasma insulin response than one made from a standard barley. Journal of Cereal Science 48(2):526-530.

Lee KW, Kim YJ, Lee HJ, Lee CY (2003). Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(25):7292-7295.

Mamat H, Abu Hardan MO, Hill SE (2010). Physicochemical properties of commerc al semi-sweet biscuit. Food Chemistry 121:1029-1038.

Manohar RS, Rao PH (1997). Effect of mixing period and additives on the rheological characteristics of dough and quality of biscuits. Journal of Cereal Science 25(2):197-206.

MacGregor AW, Fincher GB (1993). Carbohydrates of the barley grain. In: Barley: Chemistry and Technology (eds. W. MacGregor, R. S. Bhatty). AACC, St. Paul, USA, pp 73-130.

Mckeown NM, Jacques PF, Seal CJ, de Vries J, Jonnalagadda SS, ... Marquart LF (2013). Whole grains and health: from theory to practice: highlights of the grains for health foundation’s whole grains summit 2012. Journal of Nutrition 143(5):744S-758S.

McWatters KH (1978). Cookie baking properties of defatted peanut, soybean and field pea flours. Cereal Chemistry 55:853-863.

Monagas M, Khan N, Andres-Lacueva C, Casas R, Urpı´-Sarda M, ... Estruc R (2009). Effect of cocoa powder on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90(5):1144-1150.

Prosky L, Furda I, Devries JW, Schweizer TF, HardLand BF (1984). Determination of total dietary fiber in foods, food products, and total diets, inter laboratory study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 67:1044-1052.

Sharma S, Chopra R (2015). Nutritional, sensory and textural analysis of biscuits supplemented with malted barley (Hordeum vulgare). International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences 4:97-101.

Sharma P, Velu V, Indrani, D, Singh R (2013). Effect of dried Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) leaf powder on rheological, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of cookies. Food Research International 50(2):704-709.

Stahl L, Miller KB, Apgar J, Sweigart DS, Stuart DA, ... Hurst WJ (2009). Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder. Journal of Food Science 74(6):456-461.

Sudha ML, Vetrimani R, Leelavathi K (2007). Influence of fiber from different cereals on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on biscuit quality. Food Chemistry 100(4):1365-1370.

Vitali D, Dragojević IV, Å ebeÄić B, Vujić L (2007). Impact of modifying tea–biscuit composition on phytate levels and iron content and availability. Food Chemistry 102(1):82-89.

Wade P (1988). Biscuits, cookies and crackers. Vol. 1. Recipe of biscuit used during investigation. Applied Science Pulishers LTD, London, UK, pp 102-114.

WaltonK, Walker R, Van De Sandt JJ, Castell JV, Knapp AA, ... Schilter B (1999). The application of in vitro data in the derivation of the acceptable daily intake of food additives. Food and Chemical Toxicology 37(12):1175-1197.

How to Cite
EL-BELTAGI, H. S., AMER, A. A., ALI, R. F. M., MOUSA, S. M., & ABDEL-RAHIM, E. (2019). The Effects of Wheat Flour and Barley Flour on the Quality and Properties of Biscuits Colored with Synthetic and Natural Colorants. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 11(1), 30-38.
Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb11110408

Most read articles by the same author(s)