Canopy Temperature and Chlorophyll Content are Effective Measures of Drought Stress Tolerance in Durum Wheat


  • Fereshteh JOKAR Yasouj University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Yasouj (IR)
  • Rahmatollah KARIMIZADEH Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Dryland Agriculture Research Institute (DARI), Gachsaran (IR)
  • Asad MASOUMIASL Yasouj University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Yasouj (IR)
  • Reza AMIRI FAHLIANI Yasouj University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Yasouj (IR)



genotype; rain-fed; screening; supplementary irrigation; yield


Durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) is used for the preparation of multiple food products, including pasta and bread. Its production is restricted due to diverse environmental stresses i.e. drought and heat stress. Here, comparative analysis of durum wheat varieties was done by studying canopy temperature depression (CTD) and chlorophyll content (CHL), yield and yield contributing traits to evaluate their performance under stress and low stress conditions. Twelve durum wheat genotypes were studied under stressful and low-stress conditions in Gachsaran region of Iran. CTD and CHL were measured at two stages, from the emergence of fifty percent of inflorescence (ZGS 54) to watery ripe stage (ZGS 71). According to stress tolerance index (STI), mean productivity (MP) and geometric mean productivity (GMP) indices, genotype G10 exhibited the most, while genotype G6, the least relative tolerance, respectively. Based on MP and GMP, genotype G10 was found to be drought tolerant, while genotype G2 displayed the lowest amount of MP and GMP. Therefore these genotypes are recommended to be used as genitors in artificial hybridization for improvement of drought tolerance in other cultivars. All indices had high correlation with grain yield under stress and non-stress condition, indicating more suitability of these indices for selection of resistant genotype. Results of the present study showed that among drought tolerance indices, harmonic mean (HM), GMP, CTD and modified STI index (K2STI) can be used as the most suitable indicators for screening drought tolerant cultivars.


Metrics Loading ...


Amani I, Fischer RA, Reynolds MP (1996). Canopy temperature depression association with yield of irrigated spring wheat cultivars in hot climate. Journal of Agronomy Crop Science 176(2):119-129.

Annual Report (2014). Monthly weather reports of meteorology regional headship, Gachsaran agricultural weather station, Iran.

Annual Report (2015). Monthly weather reports of meteorology regional headship, Gachsaran agricultural weather station, Iran.

Ayeneh A, Van Ginkel M, Reynolds MP, Ammar K (2002). Comparison of leaf, spike, peduncle, and canopy temperature depression in wheat under heat stress. Field Crops Research 79(2-3):173-184.

Bahar B (2015). Relationships among flag leaf chlorophyll content, agronomical traits, and some physiological traits of winter wheat genotypes. Dicle University Institute of Natural and Applied Science Journal 4(1):1-5.

Barma NC, Rahman M, Amin R, Sarker ZI, Meisner C, Razzaque MA (1997). Summary of data from Bangladesh. In: Reynolds MP, Nagarajan S, Razzaque MA, Ageeb OAA (Eds). Using canopy temperature depression to select for yield potential of wheat in heat-stressed environments. Wheat Prog. Special Rep. 42. Mexico, CIMMYT, DF 21-22.

Beltrano J, Ronco MG (2008). Improved tolerance of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought stress and rewatering by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus claroideum: effect on growth and cell membrane stability. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 20(1):29-37.

Betran FJ, Beck D, Banziger M, Edmeades GO (2003). Genetic analysis of inbred and hybrid grain yield under stress and non-stress environments in tropical maize. Crop Science 43(3):807-817.

Blum A, Mayer J, Gozlan G (1982). Infrared thermal sensing of plant canopies as a screening technique for dehydration avoidance in wheat. Field Crops Research 5:137-146.

Blum A (1988). Plant breeding for stress environments. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Blum A (1996). Crop responses to drought and the interpretation of adaptation. Plant Growth Regulation 20:135-148.

Bouslama M, Schapaugh WT (1984). Stress tolerance in soybean. Part 1: evaluation of three screening techniques for heat and drought tolerance. Crop Science 24(5):933-937.

Bruckner PL, Frohberg RC (1987). Stress tolerance and adaptation in spring wheat. Crop Science 27(1):31-36.

Ceccarelli S (1987). Yield potential and drought tolerance of segregating populations of barley in contrasting environments. Euphytica 36(1):265-273.

Ceccarelli S, Grando S (1991). Selection environment and environmental sensitivity in barley. Euphytica 57(2):157-167.

Clarke JM, De Pauw RM, Townley-Smith TM (1992). Evaluation of methods for quantification of drought tolerance in wheat. Crop Science 32:728-732.

Ehrler WL (1972). Cotton leaf temperatures as related to soil water depletion and meteorological factors 1. Agronomy Journal 65(3):404-409.

Falconer DS (1952). The problem of environment and selection. American Naturalist 86:293-298.

Fallahi HA, Jafarby JA, Seyedi F (2011). Evaluation of drought tolerance in durum wheat genotypes using drought tolerance indices. Seed and Plant Breeding 27(1):15-22.

Farshadfar E, Sutka J (2002). Multivariate analysis of drought tolerance in wheat substitution lines. Cereal Research Communication 31:33-40.

Farshadfar E, Sutka J (2003). Screening drought tolerance criteria in maize. Acta Agronomy Hungary 50(4):411-416.

Fernandez GCJ (1992). Effective selection criteria for assessing stress tolerance. In: Kuo CG (Ed). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptation of Vegetables and other Food Crops in Temperature and Water Stress, Taiwan.

Fischer RA, Maurer R (1978). Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield responses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29(5):897-912.

Fischer RA, Rees D, Sayre KD, Lu ZM, Condon AG, Larque Saavedra A (1998). Wheat yield progress associated with higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and cooler canopies. Crop Science 38(6):1467-1475.

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2015). FAO statistical yearbook. Part 3. Trends in the crop sector. FAO, Rome.

Gitelson AA, Gritz Y, Merzlyak MN (2003). Relationships between leaf chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance and algorithms for non-destructive chlorophyll assessment in higher plant leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology 160(3):271-282.

Golabadi M, Arzani A, Maibody SAM (2006). Assessment of drought tolerance in segregating populations in durum wheat. African Journal of Agricultural Research 1(5):162-171.

Guttieri MJ, Stark JC, Brien K, Souza E (2001). Relative sensitivity of spring wheat grain yield and quality parameters to moisture deficit. Crop Science 41(2):327-335.

Howell TA, Musick JT, Talk JA (1986). Canopy temperature of irrigated winter wheat. Transactions of the ASAE 29(6):1692-1699.

Idso SB (1982). Non-water-stressed baseline: a key to measuring and interpreting plant water stress. Agriculture and Forestry Meteorology 27(1-2):59-70.

Idso SB, Reginato RJ, Clawson KL, Anderson MG (1984). On the stability of non-water-stressed baselines. Agriculture and Forestry Meteorology 32:177-182.

Jackson RD, Idso SB, Reginato RJ, Pinter PJ (1981). Canopy temperature as a crop water stress index. Water Resources Research 17:1133-1138.

Jensen JR (2007). Remote sensing of the environment: an earth resource perspective. Prentice Hall series in

Geographic Information Science. Edited 2. Auflage. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Karimizadeh R, Mohammadi M (2011). Association of canopy temperature depression with yield of durum wheat genotypes under supplementary irrigation and rain-fed conditions. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(2):138-146.

Karimizadeh R, Mohammadi M, Sabaghnia N, Shefazadeh MK (2012). Using Huehn's nonparametric stability statistics to investigate genotype? Environment Interaction. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 40(1):293-301.

Karimizadeh R, Sharifi P, Mohammadi M (2012). Correlation and path coefficient analysis of grain yield and yield components in durum wheat under two irrigated and rain fed condition. International Journal of Agriculture 2(3):277-283.

Karimizadeh R, Mohammad M, Sabahgni N, Mahmoodi AE, Roustami B, Seyyedi F, Akbari F (2013). GGE biplot analysis of yield stability in multi-environment trials of lentil genotypes under rain-fed condition. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 5(2):256-262.

Karimizadeh R, Yousefi azar M, Mohammadi M (2014). Evaluation of durum wheat genotypes in rainfed and supplemental irrigation conditions in Gachsaran region of Iran. Seed and Plant Breeding 29(4):505-522.

Karimizadeh R, Asghari A, Chinipardaz R, Sofalian O, Ghaffari AA (2016a). Determining yield stability and model selection by AMMI method in rain-fed durum wheat genotypes. Turkish Journal of Field Crops 21(2):174-183.

Karimizadeh R, Asghari A, Chinipardaz R, Sofalian O, Ghaffari AA (2016b). Application of GGE biplot analysis to evaluate grain yield stability of rainfed spring durum wheat genotypes and test locations by climatic factors in Iran. Crop Breeding Journal 6(2):41-49.

Kaufmann H, Segl K, Itzerott S, Bach H, Wagner A, Hill J, Heim B, Oppermann K, Heldens W, Stein E, Müller A, van der Linden S, Leito PJ, Rabe A, Hostert P (2010). Hyper spectral algorithms: report in the frame of EnMAP preparation activities, (Scientific Technical Report; 10/08), Potsdam: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ pp 268.

Khaksar N, Farshadfar E, Mohammadi R (2014). Evaluation of durum wheat advanced genotypes based on drought tolerance indices. Cereal Research 3(4):267-279.

Mohammadi R, Abdulahi A (2017). Evaluation of durum wheat genotypes based on drought tolerance indices under different levels of drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Science 62(1):1-14.

Molla Heydari Bafghi R, Baghizadeh A, Mohammadinezhad G (2017). Evaluation of salinity and drought stresses tolerance in wheat genotypes using tolerance indices. Journal of Crop Breeding 23(9):27-34.

Moosavi SS, Yazdi Samadi B, Naghavi MR, Zali AA, Dashti H, Pourshahbazi A (2008). Introduction of new indices to identify relative drought tolerance and resistance in wheat genotypes. Desert 12(2):165-178.

Munjal R, Rana RK (2003). Evaluation of Physiological traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for terminal high temperature tolerance. Proceedings of the tenth international wheat genetics symposium. Italy. Classical and Molecular Breeding 2(3):804-805.

Naghavi MR, Pour Aboughadareh A, Khalili M (2017). Evaluation of drought tolerance indices for screening some of Corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars under environmental conditions. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 5(3):388-393.

Nasir Ud-Din Carver BF, Clutte AC (1992). Genetic analysis and selection for wheat yield in drought-stressed and irrigated environments. Euphytica 62(2):89-96.

Panthuwan G, Fokai S, Cooper M, Rajatasereekul S, O’Toole JC (2002). Yield response of rice (Oryza sativa L) genotypes to different types of drought under rain-fed lowlands. Part 1: grain yield and yield components. Field Crops Research 73(2-3):153-168.

Pireivatlou AM, Dehdar Masjedlou B, Aliyev RT (2010). Evaluation of yield potential and stress adaptive trait in wheat genotypes under post anthesis drought stress conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(20):2829-2836.

Rajaram S, Van Ginkle M (2001). 50 years of international wheat breeding in Mexico. In: Bonjean AP, Angus WJ (Eds), The World Wheat Book, A History of Wheat Breeding, Lavoisier Publishing, Paris, France pp 579-604.

Ramirez P, Kelly JD (1998). Traits related to drought tolerance in common bean. Euphytica 99(2):127-136.

Rathjen AJ (1994). The biological basis of genotype-environment interaction, In: Proceedings of the seventh assembly of the wheat breeding society of Australia. Adelaide, Australia.

Reynolds MP, Balota M, Delgado MIB, Amani I, Fischer RA (1994). Physiological and morphological traits associated with spring wheat yield under hot irrigated conditions. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 21(6):717-730.

Richards RA (1996). Defining selection criteria to improve yield under drought. Plant Growth Regulation 20(2):157-166.

Richardson RA, Rebetzke GJ, Condon AG, Herwaarden AF (2002). Breeding opportunities for increasing the efficiency of water use and crop yield in temperate cereals. Crop Science 42(1):111-121.

Rosielle AA, Hamblin J (1981). Theoretical aspects of selection for yield in stress and non-stress environment. Crop Science 21(6):943-946.

Talebi R, Fayaz F, Naji AM (2009). Effective selection criteria for assessing drought stress tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.). Genetic and Applied Plant Physiology 35(1-2):64-67.

Van Ginkel M, Calhoun DS, Gebeyehu G, Miranda A, Tian-You C, Wanjura DF, Upchurch DR, Mahan JR (1995). Control of irrigation scheduling using temperature-time thresholds. Transactions of the ASAE 38(2):403-409.

Yaghootipor A, Farshadfar E, Saeedi M (2017). Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for drought tolerance by using Suitable combination method. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science 10(2):247-256.

Yan W (2002). Singular value partitioning in biplot analysis of multi-environment trial data. Agriculture Journal 94(5):990-996.

Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974). A decimal code for growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14(6):415-421.




How to Cite

JOKAR, F., KARIMIZADEH, R., MASOUMIASL, A., & AMIRI FAHLIANI, R. (2018). Canopy Temperature and Chlorophyll Content are Effective Measures of Drought Stress Tolerance in Durum Wheat. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 10(4), 575–583.



Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb10410288

Most read articles by the same author(s)