Laparoscopic Enucleation of Benign Pancreatic Tumors
Benign pancreatic tumor enucleations have been performed since 1996. Endocrine tumors (ET) are rare yet they represent about 2/3 of the laparoscopic enucleations, a topic still in debate. Preoperative imaging routinely comprises a CT scan but endoscopic ultrasound is mandatory for localizing the tumor and guided biopsy-aspiration. Trocars have to be positioned to avoid “fencing” with the instruments. A Kocher maneuver may be necessary for accessing deep or posterior tumors. Bipolar electrocautery and harmonic scalpel ensure better hemostasis than the monopolar cautery hook. The raw surface can be covered with hemostatics or fibrin glue. The mean operating time is 2 hours. Forced conversions, due mainly to hemorrhage or insufficient exposure, are rare (9%). Pancreatic fistula, the main postoperative complication, affects up to one third of the patients and does not depend on the choice of dissection instruments, management of the remaining cavity or somatostatin use. A risk factor is the location of the tumor at less than 2mm from the main pancreatic duct. Necrotic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst and duodenal fistula contribute to a surgical morbidity of 60%. Although safe and technically feasible enucleation still has to be considered a low mortality but high morbidity procedure.
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