Genetic Differentiation Studies among Natural Populations of Tilapia zillii
The population structure of Tilapia zillii (Gervais 1848) from three reservoirs in Nigeria, Osun State (Opa, Osu and Igun) was determined by employing morphological and molecular (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) methods. For morphological studies, 25 morphometric measurements and six meristic counts were recorded on 40 individuals within each population. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the morphometric and meristic data using the PAST software. For RAPD studies, genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin tissue using CTAB method and five primers were used to initiate PCR amplifications. All the clusters produced by the Principal components analysis (PCA) of the morphometric and meristic parameters overlapped indicating a low level of genetic differentiation between the three populations of T. zillii studied. The UPGMA cluster diagram from RAPD analysis identified two major genotypic groups with inter and intra group relationships. All individuals in the first cluster were from the Osu reservoir, while individuals from Opa and Igun reservoirs constituted the second cluster. Nei’s unbiased measure of genetic distances was 0.8532, 0.7321 and 0.7111 for Osu, Igun and Opa populations respectively. This revealed that Opa and Igun populations were genetically closer, while Osu populations is distant from them. The results suggest that the RAPD technique could be used to differentiate populations of T. zillii. However, additional methods such as microsatellite and sequence analysis can be used to maximize the efficiency of genetic differentiation studies.
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