Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree) Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates
The antibacterial activities of the ethanolic extracts of seed, leaf and stem bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were investigated. The extracts were tested against three clinical bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the agar diffusion and the broth dilution techniques. Ethanolic extracts of the plant parts showed activity against all the bacterial pathogens tested. At the highest extract concentration (200 mg/ml), the leaf extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, while no activity was detected at the lowest concentration (3.13 mg/ml) against the tested isolates. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to all extracts of V. paradoxa, while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the least sensitivity. The efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa was compared to a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. There were differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all the Vitellaria paradoxa ethanolic extracts with respect to the type of organism. All extracts exhibited bacteriostatic effects against the tested organisms at the experimented concentrations. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and alkaloids as the active principles of Vitellaria paradoxa's antimicrobial activity. V. paradoxa could be used as a potential source of antibiotic substance for a drug development.
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