Environmental variations on physicochemical properties in vasicine content of Adhatoda vasica - An ayurvedic medicinal plant


  • Palshikar GAUTAM PRIST Deemed To Be University, Department of Pharmacy, Centre for Research and Development (CRD), Thanjavur 613 403, Tamil Nadu (IN) https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5086-6716
  • Shanmugapandiyan PITCHAIMUTHU PRIST Deemed To Be University, Department of Pharmacy, Centre for Research and Development (CRD), Thanjavur 613 403, Tamil Nadu (IN)




alkaloids, antidiabetic, herbal, metabolites, variations


Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional formulations for the treatment of various disease conditions. The physicochemical properties fluctuate with the season and in response to stress. To obtain the highest medicinal value it is necessary to collect the plant raw material in the correct season. The present study was aim to evaluate the physiochemical fluctuations in the leaves of A. vasica and the vasicine, an antidiabetic constituent in these leaves. Leaves were collected in every month of a year at different time and places and authentication and standardization was done. The leaves were evaluated for the macroscopic and microscopic evaluation, quantitative microscopy, proximate phytochemical analysis, extractive values in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, water, and determination of the concentration of antidiabetic component vasicine. The leaves showed morphological and microscopical variations in different seasons. The phytochemical composition was the same in all seasons however the levels of extractive values fluctuated in response to seasonal variations. Maximum levels of ethanol and water extract were obtained in the winter season also the vasicine concentration was higher in this season.


Metrics Loading ...


Anonymous (2004). Review on Indian medicinal plants. Vol I. Indian council of medical research, New Delhi, pp 258.

Arun C, Chitharanjan D, Vijaya R, Dendi K, Aditya C, Rahul R, … Wasique M (2017). Clinical review of antidiabetic drugs: implications for Type 2 diabetes mellitus management. Frontiers in Endocrinology 8(6):1-12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.891927

Asha T, Abhilash K, Adinath S, Sanjeevani D, Lata K (2020). A high-performance thin layer chromatographic method using a design of experiment approach. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 17(2):148-158. https://doi.org/10.4274/tjps.galenos.2018.80958

Das C, Poi R, Chowdhary A (2005). HPTLC Determination of vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemical Analysis 16: 90-92. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15881115/ 10.1002/pca.817.

Dhar ML, Dhar MM, Dhawan BN, Mehrotr BN and Ray C (1968). Screening of Indian plants for biological activity part. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 6:232-247.

Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Rocha F, Ohlrogge AW, Malanda B (2018). Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Research Clinical Practice 138:271-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.02.023

Feneli K, George S, Aristofania S (2020). The challenges in the development of diabetes prevention and care models in low- income settings. Frontiers Endocrinology 11(518):1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00518

Haidan Y, Qianqian M, Li Y, Guangchun P (2016). The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products molecules. Molecules 21(559):1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050559

Martins E (2013). The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Frontiers in Pharmacology 4(177):1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2013.00177

Narayana D.B.A, Agarwal S, Luthra S, Srinivas N (1995). A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of vasicine in Adhatoda vasica. Indian Drugs 32(12):583-86.

Ngan T, Bao P, Ly L (2020). Bioactive compounds in anti-diabetic plants: from herbal medicine to modern drug discovery. Biology 9(9):252. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology 9090252

Oyinlola O, Ngianga BK, Peter JC, Richard JL (2016). Use of traditional medicine in middle-income countries: a WHO-SAGE study. Health Policy Plan 31(8):984-991. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czw022

Saikat S, Raja C (2017). Revival, modernization and integration of Indian traditional herbal medicine in clinical practice: Importance, challenges and future, Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 7(2):234-244. https://doi.org/10.1016%252Fj.jtcme.2016.05.006

Shabir L, Ajit S, Malik T, Yogesh B and Raghuwanshi K (2013). A review on Adhatoda vasica Nees- An important and high demanded medicinal plant. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3(3):27-33. https://doi.org/10.1044/ 1980- iajpr.08440

Shi-L C, Hua Y, Hong ML, Qiong W, Chun FL, Andre S (2016). Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: problems, progress, and prospects. Chinese Medicine 11:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-016-0108-7.

Soni S, Anadjiwala S, Patel G, Rajani M (2008). Validation of different methods of preparation of Adhatoda vasica leaf juice by quantification of total alkaloids and vasicine. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 70(1):36-42. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.40329.

Sushree PD, Sangita D, Soubhagyalaxmi S (2017). Phytochemical and biochemical characterizations from leaf extracts from Azadirachta indica: An important medicinal plant. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry 6(2):1-4. https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-1009.1000323

Uttpal A, Nadia JH, Amma, A, Naoufal L (2019). A comprehensive review on medicinal plants as antimicrobial therapeutics: potential avenues of biocompatible drug discovery. Metabolites 9(11):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9110258

Wesam K, Maryam F, Zahra A, Damoon A, Majid A (2016). The role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes. Electronic Physician 8(1):1832-1842. https://doi.org/10.19082/1832



How to Cite

GAUTAM, P., & PITCHAIMUTHU, S. (2023). Environmental variations on physicochemical properties in vasicine content of Adhatoda vasica - An ayurvedic medicinal plant. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 15(1), 11368. https://doi.org/10.55779/nsb15111368



Research articles
DOI: 10.55779/nsb15111368