Efficacy of ethyl acetate extract of Alangium salviifolium fruit pericarp against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae

Keywords: Bioactive compound, Culex, mortality, pericarp, Pyrazole, solvent


Mosquitoes transmit major human diseases, resulting in millions of fatalities each year and the development of chemical insecticide resistance, leading to a rebound in vectorial capacity. Plants could be used as a mosquito repellent alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocontrol potentiality of ethyl acetate extract of fruit pericarp of Alangium salviifolium against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. 100% larval mortality was recorded after 72 h of exposure with 50, 40 ppm, and 30 ppm concentrations of ethyl acetate extract against 3rd instar mosquito larvae. The bioactive compound responsible for larval mortality was isolated by TLC (Rf value of 0.33). 3rd instar larvae were found to be the most susceptible (LC50 = 3.60 ppm) among all the instars and corresponding LC50 values were 4.45 ppm and 4.52 ppm for 2nd and 4th instars larvae respectively after 72 h of exposure. The mortality rate of all larval instars was directly proportional to the concentration of bioactive compounds. Three-way ANOVA analysis revealed that larval instars, the concentration of bioactive compound, and time of exposure had a significant effect on larval mortality. In the bioactive TLC fraction of A. salviifolium (Rf value of 0.33), FT-IR spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of numerous functional groups. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of Benzoyl bromide and 3-Amino -5 (2-Furyl) Pyrazole in the extract. The compounds were also studied on non-target organisms such as Anisops sardea, 4th instar larvae of Chironomus sp. and Diplonychus annulatum, and in all the cases no abnormalities were recorded.


Metrics Loading ...


Abbott WS (1925). A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18:265-267.

Adhikari U, Chandra G (2014). Larvicidal, smoke toxicity, repellency and adult emergence inhibition effects of leaf extracts of Swietenia mahagoni Linnaeus against Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases 4:(1):S279-S283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60456-4

Anees AM (2008). Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Parasitology Research 103(6):1451-1453. https://doi.org10.1007/s00436-008-0991-7

Bhattacharjee I, Aditya G, Chandra G (2009). Laboratory and field assessment of the potential of larvivorous, air-breathing fishes as predators of culicine mosquitoes. Biological Control 49(2):126-133. Https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.12.014

Bhattacharjee I, Chatterjee SK, Ghosh A, Chandra G (2011). Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts used in Indian traditional folk medicine. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 1(2):S165-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60148-2

Chandra G, Ghosh A, Biswas D, Chatterjee SN (2006). Host plant preference of Mansonia mosquitoes. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 44:142-144.

Chandra G (2008). Nature limits filarial transmission. Parasites & Vectors 1(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-1-13

De SK, Chandra G (1994). Studies on the filariasis vector-Culex quinquefasciatus at Kanchrapara, West Bengal, India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 99:255-258.

Derraik JGB, Slaney D (2005). Container aperture size and nutrient preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Auckland region, New Zealand. Journal of Vector Ecology 30(1):73-82.

Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Venkatesan C (2009). Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitology Research 104(6):1381-1388. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1339-7

Fang Y, Zhang Yi (2019). Lessons from lymphatic filariasis elimination and the challenges of post-elimination surveillance in China. Infect Diseases of Poverty 8:66. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-019-0578-9

Finkelstein BL, Strock CJ (1999). Synthesis and insecticidal activity of novel Pyrazole methanesulfonates. Pest Science 50:324-328. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199708)50:4<324::AID-PS596>3.0.CO;2-D

Ghosh A, Mandal S, Bhattacharjee I, Chandra G (2005). Biological control of vector mosquitoes by some common exotic fish predators. Turkish Journal of Biology 29(3):167-171.

Ghosh A, Chowdhury N, Chandra G (2012). Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicide. Indian Journal of Medical Research 135:581-598.

Ghosh P, Mondal RP, Haldar KM, Chandra G (2016). Larvicidal, pupicidal and smoke toxic activity of Alangium salvifolium leaf extracts against Culex vishnui group mosquitoes. Journal of Mosquito Research 6(2):1-8.

Haldar KM, Ghosh P, Chandra G (2011). Evaluation of target specific larvicidal activity of the leaf extract of Typhonium trilobatum against Culex quinquefasciatus say. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine S199-S203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60156-1

Haldar KM, Haldar B, Chandra G (2013). Fabrication, characterization and mosquitolarvicidal bioassay of silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous fruit extract of putranjiva, Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.). Parasitology Research 112(4):1451-1459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3288-4

Hati AK, Chandra G, Bhattacharyya, Biswas D, Chatterjee KK, Dwibedi HN (1989). Annual transmission potential of bancroftian filariasis in an urban and a rural area of West Bengal, India. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 40(4):365-367. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1989.40.365

Holder PW, Brown G, Bullians M (1999). The mosquitoes of New Zealand and their animal disease significance. Surveillance 26(4):12-15.

Hossain E, Chandra G, Nandy AP, Mandal SC, Gupta JK (2012). Anthelmintic effect of a methanol extract of Bombax malabaricum leaves on Paramphistomum explanatum. Parasitology research 110(3):1097-1102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2594-y

Inziani M, Adungo F, Awando J, Kihoro R, Inoue S, Morita K, ... Mwau M (2020). Seroprevalence of yellow fever, dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses in children in Teso South Sub-County, Western Kenya. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 91:104-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.11.004

Jacobson M (1975). Insecticides from plants: a review of literature 1954-1971: United States Department of Agriculture, Hand Book No. 461. Washington.

Kamaraj C, Bagavan A, Elango G, Abduz Zahir A, Rajkumar G, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Abdul Rahuman A (2011). Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Indian Journal of Medical Research 134:101-106.

Kim M, Sim C, Shin D, Suh E, Cho K (2006). Residual and sublethal effects of fenpyroximate and pyridaben on the instantaneous rate of increase of Tetranychus urticae. Crop Protection 25(6):542-548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2005.08.010

Mondal RP, Ghosh A, Chandra G (2014). Mosquito larvicidal potential of salicylic acid and 3, 5-di nitro salicylic acid against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Journal of Mosquito Research 4(1). https://doi.org/10.5376/jmr.2014.04.0004

Panara K, Singh PK, Rawat P, Kumar V, Maruf M, Patel K, Ravikumar RK, Kumar V (2016). Importance of Alangium salviifolium and its pharmacological update. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 12(4):1-15. http://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2016/23899

Prakash NKU, Bhuvaneswar S, Preethy S, Rajalakshmi N, Saranya M, Anto JR, Arokiyaraj S (2013). Studies on antimicrobial, antioxidant, larvicidal, pesticidal activity and phytochemistry of leaves of Alangium salvifolium Linn Wang. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5(2):86-89.

Rawani A, Ghosh A, Chandra G (2010). Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum nigrum L. leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Parasitology Research 107(5):1235-1240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1993-9

Rawani A, Ghosh A, Laskar S, Chandra G (2012). Aliphatic Amide from Seeds of Carica papaya as Mosquito Larvicide, Pupicide, Adulticide, Repellent and Smoke Toxicant. Journal of Mosquito Research 2:8-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.5376/jmr.2012.02.0002

Reuben R, Tewari SC, Hiriyan J, Akiyama J (1994). Illustrated keys to species of Culex (Culex) associated with Japanese encephalitis in Southeast Asia (Diptera:Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics 26(2):75-96.

Roark RC (1947). Some promising insecticidal plants. Economic Botany 1:437-445.

Robert V, Goff GL, Ariey F, Duchemin JB (2002). A possible alternative method for collecting mosquito larvae in rice fields. Malaria Journal 1(1):4. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-1-4

Sakthivadivel M, Thilagavathy D (2003). Larvicidal and chemosteritant activity of the acetone fraction of petroleum ether extract from Argemone Mexicana L. seed. Bioresource Technology 89(2):213-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-8524(03)00038-5

Sathe TV, Girhe BE (2002). Mosquitoes and diseases. Daya Publishing House, New Delhi.

Selby TP, Lahm GP, Stevenson TM, Hughes KA, Cordova D, … Pahutski TF (2013). Discovery of cyantraniliprole, a potent and selective anthranilic diamide ryanodine receptor activator with cross-spectrum insecticidal activity. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 23(23):6341-6345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.09.076

Severini C, Romi R, Marinucci M, Raymond M (1993). Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of Culex pipiens from Italy. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 9(2):164-168.

Singha S, Banerjee S, Chandra G (2011). Synergistic effect of Croton caudatus (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (flowers) extracts against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 1(2):S159-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60147-0

Sukumar K, Perich MJ, Boobar LR (1991). Botanical derivatives in mosquito control: a review. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 7(2):210-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3083-7

Tennyson S, Ravindran J, Eapen A, William J (2015). Ovicidal activity of Ageratum houstonianum Mil (Asteraceae) leaf extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases 5(3):199-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3083-7

World Health Organization (1982). Manual on environmental management for mosquito control with special emphasis on malaria vectors. WHO offset publication, No. 66, pp 1-283.

World Health Organization (2005). Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. WHO, Geneva WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP.

World Health Organization (2016). Weekly epidemiological record. 91(39):441-460.

Yu H, Xu M, Cheng Y, Wu H, Luo Y, Li B (2012). Synthesis and acaricidal activity of cyenopyrafen and its geometric isomer. Archive for Organic Chemistry 6:26-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/ark.5550190.0013.603

Zahan R, Nahar L, Nesa ML (2013). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of flower (Alangium salviifolium) extract. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 16(19):1040-1045. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2013.1040.1045

How to Cite
MONDAL, R. P., GHOSH, A., BURMAN, S., & CHANDRA, G. (2022). Efficacy of ethyl acetate extract of Alangium salviifolium fruit pericarp against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 14(2), 11251. https://doi.org/10.55779/nsb14211251
Research articles
DOI: 10.55779/nsb14211251