A review on ethnopharmacological utility, traditional knowledge and phytochemistry of Aristolochia species in Assam, India

  • Punam J. BORAH Cotton University, Department of Botany, Guwahati 781001, Assam (IN)
  • Dipankar BORAH Goalpara College, Department of Botany, Goalpara 783101, Assam (IN) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3016-1070
  • Udipta DAS Tripura University, Department of Botany, Agartala 799022, Tripura (IN)
  • Tridip J. DAS NIT Arunachal Pradesh, Department of Biotechnology, Yupia 791112, Arunachal Pradesh (IN)
  • Ruma SARMA Cotton University, Department of Botany, Guwahati 781001, Assam (IN)
Keywords: Aristolochia, bioactive compounds, distribution, flora of Assam, pharmacology, taxonomy, traditional knowledge

Abstract

Aristolochia L. (Aristolochiaceae) is widely used throughout South-East Asia for the treatment of several diseases. Different species of this genus are known by similar local names in Assam. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on Aristolochia species distributed in Assam, including its traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties, in exploring future therapeutic and scientific potentials. The information on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects were collected by performing literature searches. Assam hosts a total of six species of Aristolochia. The taxonomy and distribution are presented. Traditionally the tubers are used by the local people to treat stomach pain, malaria, dysentery, high blood pressure, body pain, urinary tract infections, headache, impotency etc. It has considerable pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-fertility, anti-venom, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-pruritic, anti-feedant and toxicological activities. Approximately a total of 200 compounds have been isolated from these species. So far, pharmacological investigations are only done on three Aristolochia species, whereas the other three are simultaneously used for the same purposes. Most of the medicinal properties attributed to these Aristolochia, have not yet been investigated and proven under a scientific study. This highlights the importance of Aristolochia as a valuable candidate for future studies.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Achari B, Chakrabarty S, Pakrashi SC (1981). An N-glycoside and steroids from Aristolochia indica. Phytochemistry 20(6):1444-1445. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(81)80066-0

Attarde S, Apte K (2013). Studies on antivenom activity of Aristolochia indica plant extract against red scorpion venom by in vivo and in vitro methods. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 5(3):168-172.

Balachandran P, Wei F, Lin RC, Khan IA, Pasco DS (2005). Structure activity relationships of aristolochic acid analogues: Toxicity in cultured renal epithelial cells. Kidney International 67:1797-1805. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00277.x

Balaji S, Raj PP, Thomas J, Kumar KA (2004). Antifertility activity of ethanol extract of Aristolochia tagala leaf. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 66:843.

Basak S, Banerjee A, Manna CK (2016). Role of some ethno medicines used by the Santal tribal people, of the district Bankura, W.B., India, for abortifacient purposes. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 4:125-129.

Baskar K, Sasikumar S, Muthu C, Kingsley S, Ignacimuthu S (2011). Bio efficacy of Aristolochia tagala Cham. against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18(1):23-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.09.004

Basumatary N, Teron R, Saikia M (2014). Ethnomedicinal practices of the Bodo-Kachari tribe of Karbi Anglong district of Assam. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research 3(1):161-167.

Battu GR, Parimi R, Chandra Shekar KB (2011). In vivo and in vitro pharmacological activity of Aristolochia tagala (syn: Aristolochia acuminata) root extracts. Pharmaceutical Biology 49(11):1210-1214. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2011.589855

Bhandary MJ, Chandrasekhar KR (2011). Herbal therapy for herpes in the ethno-medicine of Coastal Karnataka. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 10(3):528-532.

Bhat P, Hedge GR, Hedge G, Mulgund GS (2014). Ethnomedicinal plants to cure skin diseases- An account of the traditional GR knowledge in the coastal parts of Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151:493-502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.062

Biswas A, Bari MA, Roy M, Bhadra SK (2010). Inherited folk pharmaceutical knowledge of tribal people of Chittagong Hill tracts, Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9(1):77-89.

Bolla SR, Al-Subaie AM, Al-Jindan RY, Balakrishna JP, Ravi PK, Veeraraghavan VP, Pillai AA, … Surapaneni KM (2019). In vitro wound healing potency of methanolic leaf extract of Aristolochia saccata is possibly mediated by its stimulatory effect on collagen-1 expression. Heliyon 5(5):e01648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01648

Borah D, Tangjang S, Das AP, Upadhyaya A, Mipun P (2020). Assessment of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in Behali Reserve Forest, Assam, Northeast India. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 19(43):1-15. https://doi.org/10.32859/era.19.43.1-15

Borah D, Taram M, Das AP, Tangjang S, Do TV (2019). Aristolochia assamica (Aristolochiaceae), a new species from the East Himalayas. Annales Botanica Fennici 56:253-257. https://doi.org/10.5735/085.056.0410

Borah PK, Gogoi P, Phukan AC, Mahanta J (2006). Traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in upper Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5(4):510-512.

Bose NMFJ, Aron S, Mehalingam P (2014). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Paliyars aboriginal community in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13:613-618.

Britto JD, Mahesh R (2007). Exploration of Kani tribal botanical knowledge in Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve, South India, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11:258-265.

Chakraborty MK, Bhattacharjee A (2006). Some common ethnomedicinal uses for various diseases in Purulia district, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5(4):554-558.

Che CT, Ahmed MS, Kang SS, Waller DP, Bingel AS, Lankin DC, … Fong HHS (1984). Studies on Aristolochia III isolation and biological evaluation of constituents of Aristolochia indica roots for fertility-regulating activity. Journal of Natural Products 47(2):331-341.

Chen ZL, Zhu DY (1987). Aristolochia alkadoids. In: Arnold B (Ed). The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology. Academic Press pp 3-9.

Choudhary MS, Mishra N, Upadhyay ST, Upadhyay R (2011). Indigenous knowledge of using medicinal plants in treating skin diseases by tribal’s in central Narmada valley of Madhya Pradesh (India). Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences 1(1):60-63.

Das A, Bondya SL (2015). Indigenous herbal healers of Dumka District: Repositories of ethno-medicines. International Journal for Exchange of Knowledge 2(1):25-33.

Das PK, Mondal AK (2012). A report to the rare and endangered medicinal plants resources in the dry deciduous forest areas of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. International Journal of Drug Discovery and Herbal Research 2(2):418-429.

Das R, Kausik A, Pal TK (2010). Anti-inflammatory activity study of antidote Aristolochia indica to the venom of Heteropneustes fossilis in rats. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 2(2):554-562.

Debelle FD, Vanherweghem JL, Nortier JL (2008). Aristolochic acid nephropathy: A worldwide problem. Kidney International 74(2):158-169. https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.2008.129

Desai DC, Jacob J, Almeida A, Kshirsagar R, Manju SL (2014). Isolation, structural elucidation and anti-inflammatory activity of astragalin, (-) hinokinin, aristolactam I and aristolochic acids (I & II) from Aristolochia indica. Natural Product Research 28(17):1413-1417. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.905563

Devendrakumar D, Anbazhagan M (2012). Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used in Perambalur District, Tamil Nadu. Research in Plant Biology 2:24-30.

Devi Prasad AG, Shyma TB, Raghavendra MP (2013). Plants used by the tribes for the treatment of digestive system disorders in Wayanad district, Kerala. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 3(08):171-175. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2013.3830

Dey A, De J (2011). Aristolochia indica: a review. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 10(2):108-116.

Dey A, De JN (2012). Traditional use of plants against snakebite in Indian Subcontinent: A review of the recent literature. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 9(1):153-174. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v9i1.20

Dey A, Nath DJ (2012). Pharmacology and medicobotany of Aristolochia tagala Cham: A review. Pharma Science Monitor 3(1):110-122.

Dharmalingama SR, Madhappanb R, Ramamurthya S, Chidambarama K, Srikantha MV, Shanmughama S, Senthil Kumar KL (2014). Investigation on antidiarrhoeal activity of Aristolochia indica Linn. root extracts in mice. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 11(2):292-294. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v11i2.11

Do TV, Luu TH, Wanke S, Neinhuis C (2015). Three new species and three new records of Aristolochia subgenus Siphisia from Vietnam including a key to the Asian species. Systematic Botany 40(3):671-691. https://doi.org/10.1600/036364415X689140

Galav P, Jain A, Katewa SS (2013). Traditional veterinary medicine used by livestock owners of Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 12(1):47-55.

Ganesan S, Chandhirasekaran M, Selvaraj A (2008). Ethnoveterinary healthcare practices in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 7(2):347-354.

Ganguly AK, Gopinath KW, Govindachari TR, Nagarajan K, Pai BR, Parthasarathy PC (1969). Ishwarone, a novel tetracyclic sesquiterpene. Tetrahedron Letters 3:133-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)87491-8

Garg A, Darokar MP, Sundaresan V, Faridi U, Luqman S, Rajkumar S, Khanuja SPS (2007). Anticancer activity of some medicinal plants from high altitude evergreen elements of Indian Western Ghats. Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine 13:1-6.

Goverdhan P, Sandhya Rani M, Thirupathi K, Rani S, Sathesh S, Ravi Kumar B, Mohan GK (2008). Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of Aristolochia indica normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Pharmacologyonline 1:20-29.

Govindachari TR, Mohamed PA, Parthasarathy PC (1970). Ishwarane and Aristolochene, two new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from Aristolochia indica. Tetrahedron 26(2):615-619. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4020(01)97854-8

Gritto MJ, Nanadagopalan V, Doss A (2015). Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Shobanapuram village of Pachamalai Hill, Tamilnadu. Advances in Applied Science Research 6(3):157-164.

Gupta VK, Singh GD, Singh S, Kaul A (2010). Medicinal plants: phytochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol 1. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India.

Hadem KLH, Sen A (2019). Identification of compounds of Aristolochia tagala and apoptotic activity in HeLa cells. Pharmacognosy Magazine 14(59):571-577.

Hadem KLH, Sharan RN, Kma L (2014). Inhibitory potential of methanolic extracts of Aristolochia tagala and Curcuma caesia on hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in BALB/c mice. Journal of Carcinogenesis 13:7. https://doi.org/10.4103/1477-3163.133520

Hadem KLH, Sharan RN, Kma L (2016). Phytochemicals of Aristolochia tagala and Curcuma caesia exert anticancer effect by tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated decrease in nuclear factor kappaB binding activity. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy 7(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-0105.170585

Han J, Xian Z, Zhang Y, Liu J, Liang A (2019). Systematic overview of Aristolochic acids: Nephrotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and underlying mechanisms. Frontiers in Pharmacology 10:648. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00648

Hercluis, Kumar DS, Koilpillai YJ (2018). Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Aristolochia tagala leaf extract against selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. International Journal of Innovative Research in Technology 5(2):344-347.

Hiremath VT, Taranath TC (2010). Traditional phytotherapy for snake bites by tribes of Chitradurga District, Karnataka, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 14:120-125.

Hwang SM, Kelly LM, Gilbert MG (2003). Aristolochiaceae. In: Wu Z, Peter HR, Hong D (Eds). Flora of China. Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis pp 246-269.

Ignacimuthu S, Ayyanar M (2005). Medicinal plants used by the tribals of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu to treat poisinous bites and skin diseases. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 4(3):229-236.

Ioset J, Raoelison GI, Hostettmann K (2002). An LC/DAD-UV/MS method for the rapid detection of aristolochic acid in plant preparations. Planta Medica 68:856-858. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-34413

Jain A, Katewa SS, Galav P, Nag A (2008). Some therapeutic uses of biodiversity among the tribals of Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 7(2):256-262.

Jeeva S, Kiruba S, Mishra BP, Venugopal N, Dhas SSM, Regini GS, … Laloo R (2006). Weeds of Kanyakamuri district and their value in real life. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5(4):501-509.

Jeyaprakash K, Ayyanar M, Geetha KN, Sekar T (2011). Traditional uses of medicinal plants among the tribal people in Theni District (Western Ghats), Southern India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine S20-S25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60115-9

Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Puschmann C, Fleischhacker W, Shafi PM, Rosamma MK (2000). Analysis of the essential oil of the aerial parts of the medicinal plant Aristolochia indica Linn. (Aristolochiaceae) from South India. Scientia Pharmaceutica 68:309-316.

Johnsy G, Sargunam SD, Kaviyarasan V (2012). Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used for the treatment of skin diseases by the Kaani Tribe of Kanyakumari District. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4(1):309-313.

Kamble RB, Somkuwar S, Sharma S, Kamble N, Chaturvedi A (2016). Documentation of aboriginal traditional knowledge and use pattern of folk biomedicines of Deolapar Forest Range, Ramtek. International Journal of Life Sciences A6:153-156.

Kanjilal PB, Kotoky R, Couladis M (2009). Chemical composition of the stem oil of Aristolochia indica L. Journal of Essential Oil Research 21(1):24-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2009.9700098

Kanneboyena O, Suthari S, Vatsavaya SR (2015). Ethnomedicinal knowledge of inhabitants from Gundlabrahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary (Eastern Ghats), Andhra Pradesh, India. American Journal of Ethnomedicine 2(6):333-346.

Karan SK, Mishra SK, Pal D, Mondal A (2012). Isolation of β-sitosterol and evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Aristolochia indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in-vitro antioxidant activity. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(7):1219-1223. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR11.973

Kayang H (2007). Conservation of medicinal plants diversity of Meghalaya in India. In: Pramod T, Yash PA, Suman A (Eds). Biodiversity and its Significance. IK International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India pp 233-253.

Khan MA (2016). Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Unani. Zahid, India.

Kingston C, Nisha BS, Kiruba S, Jeeva S (2007). Ethnomedicinal plants used by indigenous community in a traditional healthcare system. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11:32-37.

Kiruba S, Jeeva S, Dhas SSM (2006). Enumeration of ethnoveterinary plants of Cape Comorin, Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5:576-578.

Kumar N, Choyal R, Sharma A (2014). Traditional uses of some plants of Hamirpur district as a blood purifier. International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences 6(2):106-112.

Kumar SJU, Chaitanya KMJ, Semotiuk AJ, Krishna V (2019). Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by ethnic communities of South India. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 18(4):1-112. https://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/1291/801

Kuo PC, Li YC, Wu TS (2012). Chemical constituents and pharmacology of the Aristolochia species. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2(4):249-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2225-4110(16)30111-0

Kupchan SM, Doskotch RW (1962). Tumor inhibitors I aristolochic acid, the active principle of Aristolochia indica. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 5:657-659. https://doi.org/10.1021/jm01238a029

Kupchan SM, Meriano JJ (1968). The isolation and structural elucidation of novel derivatives of Aristolochic acid from Aristolochia indica. Journal of Organic Chemistry 33(10):3735-3738.

Liu R, Zhang HC (2020). Chemical constituents from Aristolochia tagala and their chemotaxonomic significance. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 90:104037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2020.104037

Marandi RR, Britto SJ (2014). Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Oraon tribals of Latehar district of Jharkhand, India. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4(3):126-133.

Mathew JE, Kaitheri SK, Vachala SD, Jose M (2011). Anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and mast cell stabilizing activity of Aristolochia indica. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 14(5):422-427.

Meenatchisundaram S, Parameswari G, Michael A (2009). Studies on antivenom activity of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica plant extracts against Daboia russelli venom by in vivo and in vitro methods. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2(4):76-79.

Michl J, Jennings HM, Kite GC, Ingrouille MJ, Simmonds MSJ, Heinrich M (2013). Is aristolochic acid nephropathy a widespread problem in developing countries? A case study of Aristolochia indica L. in Bangladesh using an ethnobotanical-phytochemical approach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149(1):235-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.028

Mix DB, Guinaudeau H, Shamma M (1982). The aristolochic acids and aristolactams. Journal of Natural Products 45(6):657-666. https://doi.org/10.1021/np50024a001

Murthy EN (2012). Ethno medicinal plants used by Gonds of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences 3(10):2034-2043.

Murugan K, Labeeba MA, Panneerselvam C, Dinesh D, Suresh U, Subramaniam J, … Benelli G (2015). Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: a sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Research in Veterinary Science 102:127-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.08.001

Murugan M, Mohan VR (2012). Efficacy of different solvent extracts of Vitex trifolia L. and Aristolochia indica L. for potential antibacterial activity. Science Research Reporter 2(1):110-114.

Naik AS, Siddiqua S, Shrunga MN, Sunitha KL, Prashith KTR, Raghavendra HL (2015). Antimicrobial and radical scavenging efficacy of leaf and flower of Aristolochia indica Linn. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal 4(1):103-108. https://doi.org/10.4314/star.v4i1.17

Nath KK, Deka P, Borkataki S, Borthakur SK (2008). Traditional remedies of respiratory disorders from Assam, India. Pleione 2(2):211-216.

Naturu S, Pulicherla Y, Mattigunta L, Devi VRC (2013). Traditional phytotherapy treatment for snake bite and scorpion sting by ethnic groups of Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 20(1):64-70.

Nithyadevi J, Sivakumar R (2014). Documentation of traditional knowledge of herbal plant in Kalvarayan Hills, Vallupuram District, Tamil Nadu. International Letters of Natural Sciences 7:21-28. https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILNS.12.21

Nizar MK, Gopakumar S, Kumar V, Ajeesh R (2015). Indigenous Ethnomedicines and victuals of Malayans: An indigenous population of Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. Indian Journal of Ecology 42(1):9-15.

Ogunmefun OT (2018). Phytochemicals - god’s endowment of curative power in plants. Phytochemicals-source of antioxidants and role in disease prevention. IntechOpen.

Oladeji O (2016). The characteristics and roles of medicinal plants: some important medicinal plants in Nigeria. Natural Products: An Indian Journal 12(3):102.

Pakrashi SC, Dastidar PPG, Chakrabarty S, Achari B (1980). (12S)-7,12-Secoishwaran-12-01, a new type of sesquiterpene from Aristolochia indica Linn. Journal of Organic Chemistry 45:4765-4767. https://doi.org/10.1021/jo01311a043

Panda T, Padhy RN (2008). Ethnomedicinal plants used by tribes of Kalahandi district, Orissa. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 7(2):242-249.

Partha P, Hossain ABME (2007). Ethnobotanical investigation into the Mandi ethnic community in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 14(2):129-145. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjpt.v14i2.532

Paul S, Devi N, Sarma GC (2011). Medicinal plants of Subankhata Reserve Forest under Dhansiri forest division, Manas Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. Pleione 5(2):286-291.

Paul S, Devi N, Sarma GC (2011). Medicinal plants of Ultapani forest range under Holtugaon Division, Manas Biosphere Reserve (Assam). International of Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 2(4):257-263.

Poornima G, Manasa M, Rudrappa D, Kekuda PTR (2012). Medicinal plants used by herbal healers in Narasipura and Manchale villages of Sagara Taluk, Karnataka, India. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal 1(2):12-17.

Pradeepa V, Narayanan SS, Kirubakaran SA, Thanigaivel A, Nathan SS (2015). Toxicity of aristolochic acids isolated from Aristolochia indica Linn (Aristolochiaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Experimental Parasitology 153:8-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.017

Prakasha HM, Krishnappa M, Krishnamurthy YL, Poornima SV (2010). Folk medicine of NR Pura taluk in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9(1):55-60.

Prashantkumar P, Vidyasagar GM (2006). Documentation of traditional knowledge on medicinal plants of Bidar district, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 5(3):295-299.

Purkayastha J, Dutta M, Nath SC (2007). Ethnomedicinal plants from Dibru-Saikhowa biosphere reserve, Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6(3):477-480.

Ragupathy S, Newmaster SG (2009). Valorizing the ‘Irulas’ traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5(10). https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-10

Rahman AM, Uddin SB, Wilcock CC (2007). Medicinal plants used by the Chakma tribes in Hill Tracts district of Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6(3):508-517.

Rahmatullah M, Khatun Z, Barua D, Alam M, Jahan S, Rownak Jahan R (2013). Medicinal plants used by traditional practitioners of the Kole and Rai Tribes of Bangladesh. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 19(6):483-491. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2012.0227

Rajakumar N, Shivanna MB (2010). Traditional herbal medicinal knowledge in Sagar Taluk of Shimoga District, Karnataka, India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 1(1):102-108.

Rajashekharan S, Pushpangadan P, Ratheesh Kumar PK, Jawahar CR, Nair CPR, Sarada Amma L (1989). Ethno-medico-botanical studies of CheriyaArayan-and ValiyaArayan- (Aristolochia indica, Linn; Aristolochiatagala, Cham). Ancient Science of Life 9(2):99-106.

Rao AS, Muthana MS (1955). Preliminary studies on the essential oil from Aristolochia indica. Journal of Indian Institute of Science 37.

Rao RR (2019). Medicinal plants of India: diversity, conservation and bioprospection-concerns and strategies for 21st century. TTPP 1.

Rao VLN, Busi BR, Rao CS, Bharati K, Venkiah M (2010). Ethnomedical study among Savaras of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9(1):166-168.

Ratnam VK, Raju VRR (2005). Folk medicine used for common women ailments by Adivasis in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 4(3):267-270.

Reang I, Goswami S, Pala NA, Kumar M, Bussmann RW (2016). Ethnoveterinary applications of medicinal plants by traditional herbal healers in Reang Tribeo South District Tripura, India. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 5:1-4. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000234

Reddy CS, Reddy KN, Murthy EN, Raju VS (2009). Traditional medicinal plants in Seshachalam hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 3(5):408-412.

Reddy SR, Reddy AM, Babu MVS (2015). Traditional medicinal plants of Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India. American Journal of Ethnomedicine 2(6):379-391.

Rout SD, Panda SK (2010). Ethnomedicinal plant resources of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9(1):68-72.

Sambandan K, Dhatchanamoorthy N (2012). Studies on the phytodiversity of a sacred grove and its traditional uses in Karaikal District, U.T. Puducherry. Journal of Phytology 4(2):16-21.

Saradha M, Samydurai P, Divya Bharati G (2017). Documentation of aboriginal traditional knowledge and inherent indigenous therapeutic plants of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Kongunadu Research Journal 4(1):114-120.

Sarmah R, Saikia A (2014). Non-timber forest products: diversity and used pattern at Majuli the Brahmaputra River Island of Assam, India. Journal of Botanical Sciences 3(3):41-43.

Sarmah R, Saikia A (2016). Folklore medicine practiced by traditional healers of Fringe villages of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India. Acta Biomed Scientia 3(4):227-233.

Sati H, Sati B, Saklani S, Bhatt PC, Mishra AP (2011). Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Aristolochia indica: A review. Research Journal Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2(4):647-654.

Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A (2013). Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 1(6):168-182.

Sen B (2008). Knowledge of wild plants for human and veterinary use in West Bengal; sustainable forest management and poverty alleviation: roles of traditional forest-related knowledge. Vol. 21, IUFRO World Series, Vienna.

Senthilkumar M, Gurumoorthi P, Janardhanan K (2006). Some medicinal plants used by Irular, the tribal people of Marudhamalai hills, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Natural Product Radiance 5(5):383-388.

Shafi PM, Rosamma MK, Jamil K, Reddy PS (2002). Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Aristolochia indica. Fitoterapia 73(5):439-441. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00130-2

Shivakumar HM, Parashurama TR (2014). Phyto-ethno-medicinal knowledge of folklore people in Kappathgudda region of Gadaga District, Karnataka, South India. International Journal of Science and Research 3(11):3081-3091.

Shivanna MB, Rajakumar N (2011). Traditional medico-botanical knowledge of local communities in Hosanagara Taluk of Shimoga District in Karnataka, India. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants 17:291-317. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496475.2011.602617

Shukla AN, Srivastava S, Rawat AKS (2010). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 9(1):191-202.

Silambarasan R, Sureshkumar J, Krupa J, Amalraj S, Ayyanar M (2017). Traditional herbal medicines practiced by the ethnic people in Sathyamangalam forests of Western Ghats, India. European Journal of Integrative Medicine 16:61-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2017.10.010

Sivaperumal R, Ramya S, Ravi AV, Rajasekaran C, Jayakumararaj R (2009). Herbal remedies practiced by Malayali’s to treat skin diseases. Environment and We - An International Journal of Science and Technology 4:35-44.

Sivasankari B, Anandharaj M, Gunasekaran P (2014). An ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the village peoples of Thoppampatti, Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 153:408-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.040

Subramaniyan V, Saravanan R, Baskaran D, Ramalalingam S (2015). In vitro free radical scavenging and anticancer potential of Aristolochia indica L. against MCF-7 cell line. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 7(6):392-396.

Sudeesh S (2012). Ethnomedicinal plants used by Malayaraya tribes of Vannapuram village in Idukki, Kerala, India. Indian Journal of Scientific Research and Technology 1(1):7-11.

Sulochana AK, Raveendran D, Krishnamma AP, Oommen V (2014). Ethnomedicinal plants used for snake envenomation by folk traditional practitioners from Kallar forest region of South Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 4(1):47-51. https://doi.org/10.5455/jice.20141010122750

Swarnalatha AM, Buraka KS, Kalavatamma PC (2017). Indigenous healthcare practices of rural women for digestive disorders in Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry SP1:882-886.

Syiem D, Kharbuli B, Myrboh B, Buam DRM (2006). Medicinal plants and herbal medicine: A case study in Meghalaya. Biodiversity in Northeast India. NEHU publications, Shillong, India.

Taid TC, Rajkhowa RC, Kalita JC (2014). A study on the medicinal plants used by the local traditional healers of Dhemaji district, Assam, India for curing reproductive health related disorders. Advances in Applied Science Research 5(1):296-301.

Teron R (2019). Cross-Cultural ethnobotanical exploration of diversity and utilization of medicinal plants in KarbiAnglong district, Assam, Northeast India. NeBIO 10:35-46.

Teron R, Borthakur SK (2013). Folklore claims of some medicinal plants as antidote against poisons among the Karbis of Assam, India. Pleione 7(2):346-356.

Thirugnanasampandan R, Mahendran G, Narmatha Bai V (2008). Antioxidant properties of some medicinal Aristolochiaceae species. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(4):357-361. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB07.476

Tiwari DK, Yadav A (2017). Ethnobotanical investigation of some medicinal plants availed by Gond Tribe of Naoradehi Wild Life Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh. Anthropologist 5(3):201-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2003.11890805

Tripatara P, Onlamul W, Booranasubkajorn S, Wattanarangsan J, Huabprasert S, Lumlerdkij N, Akarasereenont P, Laohapand T (2012). The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochiatagala Cham. in Wistar rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12(1):170. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-170

Tripathi M, Sikarwar RLS (2013). Some traditional herbal formulations of Chitrakoot region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 12(2):315-320.

Tynsong H, Tiwari BK, Lynser MB (2011). Medicinal plants of Meghalaya, India. Newsletter of MAPPA/ICIMOD, NMPB and MPCN. NEHU, Shillong, India pp 7-10.

Umamaheshwari S, Murthy SM (2012). Antibacterial activity of root of Aristolochia indica on Bacillus subtilis. RGUHS Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2(2):82-85.

Usha S, Rajasekaran C, Siva R (2015). Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 6(1):118-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.013

Venkatadri B, Arunagirinathan N, Rameshkumar MR, Ramesh L, Dhanasezhian A, Agastian P (2015). In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 77:788-791. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.174991

Vijayan A, Lizu VB, John RJV, Parthipan P, Renuka C (2007). Traditional remedies of Kani tribes of Kottoor reserve forest, Agasthyavanam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6(4):589-594.

Wu TS, Damu AG, Su CR, Kuo PC (2004). Terpenoids of Aristolochia and their biological activities. Natural Product Reports 21:594-624. https://doi.org/10.1039/b401950d

Yadav RK, Prakash A (2014). Aromatic medicinal plant resources in Uttar Pradesh, India. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 3(3):160. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000160

Yesodharan K, Sujana KA (2007). Ethnomedicinal knowledge among Malamalasar tribe of Parambikulam wildlife sanctuary, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6(3):481-485.

Zhang HC, Liu R, An ZP, Li H, Zhang R, Zhou F (2016). Aristolactam-type alkaloids and aristolochic acids from Aristolochia moupinensis and Aristolochia cathcartii. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 65:198-201.

Published
2021-08-18
How to Cite
BORAH, P. J., BORAH, D., DAS, U., DAS, T. J., & SARMA, R. (2021). A review on ethnopharmacological utility, traditional knowledge and phytochemistry of Aristolochia species in Assam, India. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 13(3), 11027. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311027
Section
Review articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nsb13311027