Antimicrobial activity and chemical constitution of essential oil from Moroccan thyme (Thymus satureioides C.) on five microbial contaminants
Antimicrobial preservatives are widely added to health products to prevent microbial contamination. However, because of the risks attributed to several synthetic agents, manufacturers are searching for new natural agents. Therefore, this work investigated the different physicochemical characteristics of one of those natural ingredients, the essential oil (EO) of Moroccan thyme (Thymus satureioides C.) and its antimicrobial potential against five microbial strains. The physicochemical parameters (density, refractive index, optical rotation, miscibility, acid value, ester value, and flash point) were measured and the chemical composition was determined by GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using disc diffusion method and a macrodilution broth method. The EO yield was 1.01% compared to the dry matter. Fifty-two compounds were identified. The major compounds were thymol (28.66%), borneol (21.16%) and α- terpineol (12.33%). The disc diffusion method revealed that all the strains tested showed sensitivity to the EO at concentration of 1636 μg per disc. For the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMC), similar results were obtained for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (640 μg/mL), for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (960 μg/mL) and for Candida albicans (800 μg/mL) baring Aspergillus brasiliensis, which had 480 μg/mL and 640 μg/mL for the MIC and MMC, respectively.
Adams RP (2005). Identification of essential oil components by gas review: Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream IL.
Aicha N, Chendid Rachida T, Meskaoui Abdelmalek E, Ben Abdellah Fez Morocco M (2013). Micropropagation of Thymus satureioides Coss. an endangered medicinal plant of Morocco. Journal of Agriculture and Technology 9:487-501.
Ainane A, Talbi M, Khammour F, Hamad M, Kouali EL, Abba EH, Cherroud S, Ainane T (2019). Composition chimique et activité anti insecticide des huiles essentielles de Thymus du Maroc: Thymus capitatus, Thymus bleicherianus et Thymus satureioides. Proceedings BIOSUNE 1:96-100.
Ait-Sidi-Brahim M, Markouk M, Larhsini M (2018). Moroccan medicinal plants as anti-infective and antioxidant agents, in: new look to phytomedicine: advancements in herbal products as novel drug leads. Elsevier, pp 91-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814619-4.00005-7
Al-Maqtari MAA, Alghalibi SM, Alhamzy EH (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of thymus vulgaris from Yemen. Turkish Journal of Biochemistry 36:342-349.
Alaoui-Jamali C, Kasrati A, Leach D, Abbad A (2018). Étude comparative de l’activité insecticide des huiles essentielles des espèces de thyms originaires du Sud-Ouest marocain. Phytothérapie 16:268-274. https://doi.org/10.3166/s10298-016-1051-6
Bellakhdar J, Claisse R, Fleurentin J, Younos C (1991). Repertory of standard herbal drugs in the Moroccan pharmacopoea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 35:123-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(91)90064-K
Boubaker H, Karim H, El Hamdaoui A, Msanda F, Leach D, Bombarda I, … Ait Ben Aoumar A (2016). Chemical characterization and antifungal activities of four Thymus species essential oils against postharvest fungal pathogens of citrus. Industrial Crops Production 86:95-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.03.036
Chraibi M, Farah A, Lebrazi S, El Amine O, Iraqui Houssaini M, Fikri-Benbrahim K (2016). Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants: Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6:836-840. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.002
CLSI (2012). Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; Approved Standard-Ninth Edition. CLSI Doc. M07-A9. Wayne, PA Clin. Lab. Stand. Inst.
El Bouzidi L, Jamali CA, Bekkouche K, Hassani L, Wohlmuth H, Leach D, Abbad A (2013). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from wild and cultivated Moroccan thymus species. Industrial Crops Production 43:450-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.07.063
Elkhoudri N, Baali A, Amor H (2016). Maternal morbidity and the use of medicinal herbs in the city of Marrakech, Morocco. Indian Journal Traditional Knowledge 15:79-85.
EUCAST EC on AST (2019). Determination of antibiotic sensitivity. CASFM / EUCAST French Society of Microbiology.
Falleh H, Ben Jemaa M, Saada M, Ksouri R (2020). Essential oils: A promising eco-friendly food preservative. Food Chemistry 330:127268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127268
Fatima-Zahra E, Fouzia RF, Abdelilah R (2017). Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in the province of Sidi Kacem, Morocco. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Clinical Research 10:121-130. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i1.14326
Hakemi-Vala M, Rafati H, Aliahmadi A, Ardalan A (2017). Nanoemulsions: a novel antimicrobial delivery system. In: Nano- and Microscale Drug Delivery Systems. Elsevier, pp 245-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-52727-9.00013-3
Ismaili H, Milella L, Fkih-Tetouani S, Ilidrissi A, Camporese A, Sosa S, Altinier G, Della Loggia R, Aquino R (2004). In vivo topical anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of two extracts of Thymus satureioides leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 91:31-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.11.013
Jaafari A, Mouse HA, Rakib EM, M’Barek LA, Tilaoui M, Benbakhta C, Boulli A, Abbad A, Zyad A (2007). Chemical composition and antitumor activity of different wild varieties of Moroccan thyme. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 17:477-491. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2007000400002
Kasrati A, Alaoui Jamali C, Fadli M, Bekkouche K, Hassani L, Wohlmuth H, Leach D, Abbad A (2014). Antioxidative activity and synergistic effect of Thymus saturejoides Coss. essential oils with cefixime against selected food-borne bacteria. Industrial Crops Production 61:338-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.07.024
Khorshidian N, Yousefi M, Khanniri E, Mortazavian AM (2018). Potential application of essential oils as antimicrobial preservatives in cheese. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 45:62-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2017.09.020
Khouya T, Ramchoun M, Hmidani A, El moualij B, Amrani S, Harnafi H, … Alem C (2019). Acute toxicity and antiproliferative and procoagulant activities of fractions derived from Thymus satureioides of the Moroccan High Atlas. South African Journal of Botany 121:568-576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.01.005
Konaté K, Mavoungou JF, Lepengué AN (2012). Antibacterial activity against β- lactamase producing methicillin and ampicillin-resistants Staphylococcus aureus: Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 11:18.
Lahnine L, Mghazli S, Mahrouz M, Hidar N, Ouhammou M, Mouhib M, Zantar S, … Misdaq MA (2017). Decontamination by gamma irradiation at low doses of Thymus satureioides and its impact on physico-chemical quality. Food Bioproduction Process 104:48-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2017.04.006
Laila Z, Fatima G, Rachid M, Abdelaziz B, Chaouki AF (2014). Essential oil composition and biomass productivity of Moroccan endemic Thymus satureioides Coss. Ball. growing in the Agoundis Valley. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 8:504-512. https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2014.5373
Lal M, Baruah J, Begum T, Pandey SK (2020). Identification of a novel myrcene and methyl iso-eugenol rich essential oil variant (Jor Lab L-11) of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus L.). Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants 23:660-668. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2020.1823893
Lal M, Borah A, Pandey SK (2019). Identification of a new high geraniol rich variety 'Jor Lab L-15' of lemongrass [Cymbopogon khasianus (Hack) Stapf (ex Bor)]. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants 22:972-978. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2019.1661797
Lawal OA, Ogunwande IA (2013). Essential oils from the medicinal plants of Africa. Medicinal Plant Research in Africa: Pharmacology and Chemistry 203-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-405927-6.00005-9
Marchese A, Orhan IE, Daglia M, Barbieri R, Di Lorenzo A, Nabavi SF, … Nabavi SM (2016). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature. Food Chemistry https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.111
Mayaud L, Carricajo A, Zhiri A, Aubert G (2008). Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Letters in Applied Microbiology 47:167-173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2008.02406.x
Meyer BK, Ni A, Hu B, Shi L (2007). Antimicrobial preservative use in parenteral products: Past and present. Journal of Pharmacological Science 96:3155-3167. https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20976
Munda S, Dutta S, Pandey SK, Sarma N, Lal M (2019). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants of the North East India: A biodiversity hot spot. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants 22:105-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2019.1601032
NCCLS (2002a). Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts. Approv. Stand. Ed. Doc. M27-A2 [ISBN 1-56238-469-4]. NCCLS, 940 West Val. Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA.
NCCLS (2002b). NCCLS. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi. Approv. Stand. Doc. M38-A [ISBN 1-56238-470-8]. NCCLS, 940 West Val. Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA.
Oussalah M, Caillet S, Saucier L, Lacroix M (2007). Inhibitory effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of four pathogenic bacteria: E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Food Control 18:414-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.11.009
Rahman M (2018). Application of computational methods in isolation of plant secondary metabolites. Computational Phytochemistry 107-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-812364-5.00004-3
Ramchoun M, Harnafi H, Alem C, Büchele B, Simmet T, Rouis M, Atmani F, Amrani S (2012). Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties. ESPEN Journal 7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnme.2012.02.005
Ramchoun M, Sellam K, Harnafi H, Alem C, Benlyas M, Khallouki F, Amrani S (2015). Investigation of antioxidant and antihemolytic properties of Thymus satureioides collected from Tafilalet Region, south-east of Morocco. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 5:93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30151-9
Ramzi H, Ismaili MR, Aberchane M, Zaanoun S (2017). Chemical characterization and acaricidal activity of Thymus satureioides C. & B. and Origanum elongatum E. & M. (Lamiaceae) essential oils against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae). Industrial Crops Production 108:201-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.06.031
Rebbas K, Bounar R (2014). Floristic and ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of M’Sila (Algeria). Phytotherapie 12:284-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10298-014-0872-4
Sakkas H, Papadopoulou C (2017). Antimicrobial activity of basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 27(3):429-438. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1608.08024
Sokolik CG, Ben-Shabat-Binyamini R, Gedanken A, Lellouche JP (2018). Proteinaceous microspheres as a delivery system for carvacrol and thymol in antibacterial applications. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 41:288-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.09.032
Tahraoui A, El-Hilaly J, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B (2007). Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110:105-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.011
Taoufik F, Anejjar A, Asdadi A, Salghi R, Chebli B, El Hadek M, Idrissi Hassani LM (2017). Synergic effect between Argania spinosa cosmetic oil and Thymus satureioides essential oil for the protection of the carbon steel against the corrosion in sulfuric acid medium. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science 8:582-593.
Wang L, Zhao X, Zhu C, Xia X, Qin W, Li M, … Hu J (2017). Thymol kills bacteria, reduces biofilm formation, and protects mice against a fatal infection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strain L20. Veterinary Microbiology 203:202-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.02.021
Zhou H, Tao N, Jia L (2014). Antifungal activity of citral, octanal and α-terpineol against Geotrichum citri-aurantii. Food Control 37:277-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.09.057
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.