Acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on Wistar rats
This study investigated the toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on albino rats. The up-and-down method at a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg was used in the oral acute toxicity test. Twenty-four (24) albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A –D, n = 6). Group A (control) received distilled water, while groups B-D received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. The rats were dosed once daily for 21 consecutive days and weighed weekly. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment on day 21, the rats were fasted overnight and blood was collected into EDTA and plain bottles for hematological evaluation and serum preparation respectively. A manual method was used to determine the full blood cell count, while Randox kit was used to estimate the serum markers of liver and kidney functions. The extract was tolerated by the rat; the LD50 was greater than 2000 mg/kg. At 21 days of treatment, the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups had 27.53, 25.98 and 25.33% weight gain respectively, while the distilled water treated group had 8.38% weight gain. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) reduced (p < 0.05) the packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration and red cell count, serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, but increased the total white blood cell in the treated groups when compared with the control group. This study suggests that methanol extract of Hura crepitans has hepatoprotective activity, promotes weight gain and could precipitate anemia when taken for a long period.
Adindu EA, Elekwa I, Ogwo JI (2016). Phytochemical comparative screening of aqueous extracts of the leaves, stem barks, and roots of Hura crepitans (L) using GC–FID. IOSR Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 2(1):2455-2463. https://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jbb/papers/Vol2-issue1/C0211118.pdf
Bissinger R, Bhuyan AA, Qadri SM, Lang F (2019). Oxidative stress, eryptosis and anemia: a pivotal mechanistic nexus in systemic diseases. The FEBS Journal 2286(5):826-854. https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.14606
Bissinger R, Modicano P, Alzoubi K, Honisch S, Faggio C, Abed M, Lang F (2014). Effect of saponin on erythrocytes. International Journal of Hematology 100(1):51-59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12185-014-1605-z
Ezeja MI, Anaga AO, Asuzu IU (2014). Acute and sub-chronic toxicity profile of methanol leaf extract of Gouania longipetala in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151(3):1155-1164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.034
Ezuruike UF, Prieto JM (2014). The use of plants in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria: Pharmacological and toxicological considerations. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155(2):857-924. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.055
Fowomola MA, Akindahunsi AA (2007). Nutritional quality of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans Linn.). Journal of Medicinal Food 10(1):159-64. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2005.062
Jordan SA, Cunningham DG, Marles RJ (2010). Assessment of herbal medicinal products: challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 243(2):198-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.12.005
Kunle OF, Egharevba HO, Ahmadu PO (2012). Standardization of herbal medicines-A review. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3):101-112. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJBC11.163
Lang E, Qadri SM, Lang F (2012). Killing me softly–suicidal erythrocyte death. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 44(8):1236-1243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2012.04.019
Lupescu A, Bissinger R, Goebel T, Salker MS, Alzoubi K, Liu G, … Lang F (2015). Enhanced suicidal erythrocyte death contributing to anemia in the elderly. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 36(2):773-783. https://doi.org/10.1159/000430137
National Research Council (2010). Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. National Academies Press, http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12910.html
OECD (2008). Guidelines for the testing of chemicals, acute oral toxicity – up-and down – procedure, no. 425. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org
Oloyede GK and Olatinwo MB (2011). In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Hura crepitans (Euphorbiaceae)-a comparison of two assay methods. Cell Membranes and Free Radical Research 3(1):133-138. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/sducmfrr/issue/20745/221715
Oloyede GK, Adaramoye OA, Olatinwo MB (2016). Chemical constituents of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans Linn.) and anti hepatoxic activity of leaves and stem bark extracts. West Indian Medical Journal. https://doi.org/10.7727/wimj.2015.247
Onoja SO, Udem SC, Anaga AO, Asuzu IU (2018). Acute and chronic toxicity studies of hydromethanol leaf extract of Helianthus annuus Linn. in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 11(9):534-539. https://doi.org/10.4103/1995-7645.242311
Owojuyigbe OS, Firempong CK, Komlaga G, Larbie C, Emikpe BO (2020b). Phytochemical, antioxidant and safety evaluation of Hura crepitans (L.) stem bark hydroethanolic extract in animals. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 31(8):1-6. https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2020/v31i830255
Owojuyigbe OS, Firempong CK, Larbie C, Komlaga G, Emikpe BO (2020a). Hepatoprotective potential of Hura crepitans L.: A review of ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research 9(2):1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i230136
Singh ND, Sharma AK, Dwivedi P, Patil RD, Kumar M (2007). Citrinin and endosulfan induced maternal toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats: pathomorphological study. Journal of Applied Toxicology 27(6): 589-601. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.1242
Trinel M, Le Lamer AC, Jullian V, Jacquemin D, Graton J, Cristofoli V, … Mejia K (2020). Daphnanes diterpenes from the latex of Hura crepitans L. And activity against human colorectal cancer cells Caco-2. Bioorganic Chemistry 103:104132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104132
Vassallo A, Armentano MF, Miglionico R, Caddeo C, Chirollo C, Gualtieri MJ, … Milella L (2020). Hura crepitans L. extract: phytochemical characterization, antioxidant activity, and nanoformulation. Pharmaceutics 12(6):553. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060553
Waheed A, Barker J, Barton SJ, Owen CP, Ahmed S, Carew MA (2012). A novel steroidal saponin glycoside from Fagonia indica induces cell-selective apoptosis or necrosis in cancer cells. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 47:464-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2012.07.004
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.