Acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on Wistar rats

  • Gladys C. EZEH Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Department of Agriculture, Ndufu Alike-Ikwo, Ebonyi State (NG)
  • Nkeiruka E. UDEH Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry and Animal Health in Production, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Christian A. OZIOKO Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Samuel O. ONOJA Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Raphael E. EZE Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Yusuf N. OMEH Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Maxwell I. EZEJA Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Aruh O. ANAGA University of Nigeria, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Nsukka (NG)
Keywords: hematology, Hura crepitans, hepatoprotective, toxicity, weight gain

Abstract

This study investigated the toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on albino rats. The up-and-down method at a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg was used in the oral acute toxicity test. Twenty-four (24) albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A –D, n = 6). Group A (control) received distilled water, while groups B-D received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. The rats were dosed once daily for 21 consecutive days and weighed weekly. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment on day 21, the rats were fasted overnight and blood was collected into EDTA and plain bottles for hematological evaluation and serum preparation respectively. A manual method was used to determine the full blood cell count, while Randox kit was used to estimate the serum markers of liver and kidney functions. The extract was tolerated by the rat; the LD50 was greater than 2000 mg/kg. At 21 days of treatment, the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups had 27.53, 25.98 and 25.33% weight gain respectively, while the distilled water treated group had 8.38% weight gain. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) reduced (p < 0.05) the packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration and red cell count, serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, but increased the total white blood cell in the treated groups when compared with the control group. This study suggests that methanol extract of Hura crepitans has hepatoprotective activity, promotes weight gain and could precipitate anemia when taken for a long period.

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Published
2021-05-14
How to Cite
EZEH, G. C., UDEH, N. E., OZIOKO, C. A., ONOJA, S. O., EZE, R. E., OMEH, Y. N., EZEJA, M. I., & ANAGA, A. O. (2021). Acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on Wistar rats. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 13(2), 10939. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13210939
Section
Research articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nsb13210939

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