Structure and distribution of stomata and cystoliths in some species of Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Arunachal Pradesh, India
Keywords:cystolith, Eastern Himalaya, Ficus, idioblast, stomata
The study deals with the distribution pattern and morphology of stomata and cystoliths in the leaves of six taxa of the genus Ficus of the family Moraceae in Arunachal Pradesh. All the plant species studied contained stomata and cystoliths, which vary in shape and size. Actinocytic stomata type was present in only one species (Ficus sp. 1). Anomocytic type in three, and paracytic in four species. Stomatal frequency calculation revealed that the highest frequency was reported in F. hispida and the lowest in F. rumphii. There is also an indication that semi-coriaceous and coriaceous glabrous leaved species of Ficus are linked to the stomatal characters. The results have shown the presence of stalks in all the cystoliths of various sizes. Different shapes such as star-shaped, bean-shaped, solitary, round, and oblong cystoliths are recorded during the study. The largest cystoliths were found in F. rumphii, where its spinous surface is quite distinct from all other species and can be recognized very easily. Cystoliths are found to occur on both sides of the epidermal layer in three species (F. religiosa, F. rumphii and Ficus sp.3) whereas, it was found in the upper epidermal layer in other species. Photographic details, along with a systematic key using the cystoliths characters were also established.
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