Anti-ulcer property of methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis leaf extract in albino rats

  • Samuel O. ONOJA Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Gladys C. EZEH Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Department of Agriculture, Ndufu Alike-Ikwo, Ebonyi State (NG)
  • Nkeiruka E. UDEH Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Chinyere B. C. IKPA Imo State University, Department of Chemistry, P.M.B 2000, Owerri, Imo State (NG)
  • Daniel UGOJI Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State, (NG)
  • Jessica I. UKWUEZE Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Kelechi G. MADUBUIKE Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
  • Patrick E. ABA University of Nigeria, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Nsukka (NG)
  • Maxwell I. EZEJA Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Umudike, PMB 7267, Abia State (NG)
Keywords: anticholinergic receptor; antihistamine; anti-ulcer; Callichilia subsessilis; ethanol; indomethacin

Abstract

Peptic ulcer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is treated with herbal preparations in developing countries. This study investigated the anti-ulcer property of methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis leaf in albino rats. Methanol extract prepared through the cold maceration method was partitioned into chloroform and methanol fraction using a separating funnel. The methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis (MFCS) was concentrated in vacuo using a rotary evaporator. The acute toxicity was determined using the brine shrimp lethality test and the up-and-down method at a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg. The anti-ulcer activity of MFCS was evaluated at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg using indomethacin-and ethanol-induced ulcer models. Misoprostol was used as a reference standard. The ulcer score, index and severity were determined using standard methods. Isolated rabbit jejunum tissue in Tyrode’s solution was used to establish the possible mechanism of anti-ulcer activity of MFCS. The LC50 and LD50 of MFCS were greater than 10,000 ppm and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. The MFCS exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity in all the ulcer models used. The MFCS (25 mg/kg) produced 52% and 41.33% inhibition of ulcer index in the indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer models respectively. In the isolated tissue model, MFCS caused significant (p < 0.05) relaxation of the rhythmic contraction of the isolated rabbit jejunum and partially inhibited acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contraction of the jejunal smooth muscles. In conclusion, MFCS exhibited anti-ulcer (antihistaminic and anticholinergic) effects. This study justified the use of Callichilia subsessilis leaves in traditional medicine as an anti-ulcer remedy.

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Published
2021-03-02
How to Cite
ONOJA, S. O., EZEH, G. C., UDEH, N. E., IKPA, C. B. C., UGOJI, D., UKWUEZE, J. I., MADUBUIKE, K. G., ABA, P. E., & EZEJA, M. I. (2021). Anti-ulcer property of methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis leaf extract in albino rats. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 13(1), 10886. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13110886
Section
Research articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nsb13110886