Anti-ulcer property of methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis leaf extract in albino rats
Peptic ulcer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is treated with herbal preparations in developing countries. This study investigated the anti-ulcer property of methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis leaf in albino rats. Methanol extract prepared through the cold maceration method was partitioned into chloroform and methanol fraction using a separating funnel. The methanol fraction of Callichilia subsessilis (MFCS) was concentrated in vacuo using a rotary evaporator. The acute toxicity was determined using the brine shrimp lethality test and the up-and-down method at a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg. The anti-ulcer activity of MFCS was evaluated at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg using indomethacin-and ethanol-induced ulcer models. Misoprostol was used as a reference standard. The ulcer score, index and severity were determined using standard methods. Isolated rabbit jejunum tissue in Tyrode’s solution was used to establish the possible mechanism of anti-ulcer activity of MFCS. The LC50 and LD50 of MFCS were greater than 10,000 ppm and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. The MFCS exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity in all the ulcer models used. The MFCS (25 mg/kg) produced 52% and 41.33% inhibition of ulcer index in the indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer models respectively. In the isolated tissue model, MFCS caused significant (p < 0.05) relaxation of the rhythmic contraction of the isolated rabbit jejunum and partially inhibited acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contraction of the jejunal smooth muscles. In conclusion, MFCS exhibited anti-ulcer (antihistaminic and anticholinergic) effects. This study justified the use of Callichilia subsessilis leaves in traditional medicine as an anti-ulcer remedy.
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