Effect of municipal wastewater irrigation and well water on plant and soil characteristics


  • Mashallah DANESHVAR Lorestan University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorramabad-Boroujerd Highway, Khorramabad, Lorestan (IR)
  • Farhad FATTAHI Lorestan University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khorramabad-Boroujerd Highway, Khorramabad, Lorestan (IR)
  • Hamid R. RAHMANI Agricultural Research, Educating and Extension Organization, AREEO, Department of soil and water Research, Amir Hamza Town, Isfahan (IR)
  • Seyed A. M. MODARRES SANAVY Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Jalal AleAhmad Highway, Tehran (IR)
  • Masoud SAMI Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Food Security Research Center and Department of Food Science and Technology, Hezar-Jerib St, Isfahan (IR)




nutritional elements; pollution; yield components


In order to investigate the effect of treated wastewater on forage yield, nutrient elements and heavy metals in corn plants (Zea maize, 704 single cross), a field experiment was conducted in RCBD with three treatments in four replications in 2017. Irrigation with well water as first treatment, irrigation with wastewater as second treatment and irrigation with well water and wastewater was alternately applied as a third treatment. The results showed that the highest amount of forage corn yield, stalk and ear dry weight, plant height and leaf number and spade index were obtained in irrigation with wastewater. The highest nitrogen content of leaf and stalk and corn grain was obtained in irrigation with wastewater treatment and the least amount in irrigation with well water treatment was obtained. The amount of phosphorus and potassium measured in leaf and stalk of corn in all three treatments were not significantly different. Also, the highest amount of iron and zinc in leaf and stalk of corn was obtained in irrigation with wastewater treatment. The results showed that the amount of heavy metals including lead, cadmium and nickel in soils were not significantly different in all three treatments. According to the results, the use of urban wastewater not only does not cause soil and plant pollution to heavy elements, but also increases plant yield and nutrition.


Metrics Loading ...


Alghobar Mohammed A, Suresha S (2017). Evaluation of metal accumulation in soil and tomatoes irrigated with sewage water from Mysore city, Karnataka, India. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 16:49-59.

Alizadeh A (2003). Principles of applied hydrology. University of Emam Reza Press. Mashhad. Iran.

Alizadeh A, Bazari ME, Velayati S, Hasheminia M, Yaghmai A (2001). Using reclaimed municipal wastewater for irrigation of corn. ICID International Workshop on Wastewater Reuse Management, Seoul, Korea, pp 19-20.

Badiei A, Karandish F, Tabatabaei SM (2016). The influence of irrigation with raw and treated municipal wastewater on wheat yield and microbial characteristics of soil and plant. Water and Soil Science 26(2):215-228.

Bedbabis S, Trigui D, Ahmed CB, Clodoveo ML, Camposeo S, Vivaldi GA, Rouina BB (2015). Long-terms effects of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on soil, yield and olive oil quality. Agricultural Water Management 160:14-21.

Bremner JM (1996). Nitrogen total. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. SSSA Book Ser. SSSA and ASA, Madison, USA pp 312-381.

Castro E, Manas MP, Las Heras JDe (2011). Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil properties and turfgrass growth. Water Science and Technology 63:1678-1688.

Chen ZF, Zhao Y, Zhu Y, Yang X, Qiao J, Tianc Q, Zhang Q (2009). Health risks of heavy metals in sewage-irrigated soils and edible seeds in Langfang of Hebei province, China. Journal of Science Food Agriculture 90:314-320.

Fereidooni MJ, faraje H, Owliaie O (2013). Effect of wastewater and nitrogen fertilizer on the concentration of nutrients in sweet corn. Water Research in Agriculture 27(4):487-501.

Gupta SP, Gajender Yadav RK, Magan S, Koushik P (2015). Effect of irrigation schedules of domestic wastewater on growth and yield of fodder sorghum. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants 21(2):257-263.

Harati M, Kelidari A, Tamadon Rastegar M (2012). Effect of urban wastewater on forage maize in south of Tehran. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 3(3):650-658.

Harati M, Varavi pour M, Tamadon Rastegar M, Foghi B (2011). Effect of urban wastewater usage and problems of accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural lands (south of Tehran). African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(14):3224-3231.

Jones JB, Case VW (1990). Sampling, handling and analysis plant tissue sample. In: Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. In: Westerman RL (Ed). 3rd. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp 389-427.

Kiziloglu F, Tuean M, Sahin U, Angin I, Anapali O, Okuroglu M (2007). Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil and cabbage-plant (Brassica olereacea var. capitate cv. ‘Yavola-1’) chemical properties. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 170:166-172.

Kumar V, Chopra AK, Srivastava S (2014). Distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in soil and Vigna mungo L. Hepper (Black Gram) after irrigation with distillery wastewater. Journal of Environ and Health Sciences 1(1):1-8.

Lindsay WL, Norvell WA (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42:421-428.

Mateo-Sagasta J, Medlicott K, Qadir M, Raschid-Sally L, Drechsel P, Liebe J (2013). Proceedings of the UN-water project on the safe use of wastewater in agriculture. Published by UNW-DPC, Bonn, Germany.

Monte HM, Esousa MS (1992). Effects on crop of irrigation with facultative pound effluent. Water Science and Technology 26(7-8):1606-1613.

Moradi S, Heydari H, Saeidi M, Nosratti I (2016). Effect of sewage contaminated water on seed production, heavy metals accumulation and seedling emergence in oat. Global NEST Journal 18(2):329-338.

Munir J, Rusan M, Hinnawi S, Rousan L (2007). Long-term effect of wastewater irrigation of forage crops on soil and plant quality parameters. Soil Science Society of American Journal 215:143-152.

Noor H (2017). Analysis of groundwater resources utilization and their current condition in Iran. Journal of Rainwater Catchment Systems 5(2):29-38.

Ozyazici MA (2013). Effect of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 2:34-44.

Rajabisorkhani M, Ghaemi AA (2012). Consequences of using treated wastewater and chemical fertilizers on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) growth. Water and Irrigation Management 2(2):13-24.

Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK (2005). Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soil, crop and groundwater a case study. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 109:310-322.

Sacks M, Bernstein N (2011). Utilization of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation of field grown melons by surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 59:159-169.

Silva Leda VBD, de Lima Vera LA, Howard W, Tainara TS, Maciel S, Cris L (2016). Chemical properties of a Haplustalf soil under irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen fertilization. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 20(4):308-315.

Singh R, Singh DP, Kumar N, Bhargava SK, Barman SC (2010). Accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in soil and plants from fly ash contaminated area. Journal of Environmental Biology 31:421-430.

Sommers LE, Nelson DW, Yost KJ (1976). Variable nature of chemical composition of sewage sludge. Journal of Environmental Quality 5(3):303-306.

Tak HI, Faheem A, Babalola OO, Inam A (2012). Growth, photosynthesis and yield of chickpea as influenced by urban wastewater and different levels of phosphorus. International Journal of Plant Research 2(2):6-13.

Waling I, Vark WV, Houba G, Van der lee JJ (1989). Soil and Plant Analysis, a series of syllabi. Part 7. Plant Analysis Procedures. Wageningen Agriculture University. Netherland.

Xu J, Wu L, Chang A, Zhang Y (2010). Impact of long-term reclaimed wastewater irrigation on agricultural soils: A preliminary assessment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 183(1-3):780-786.




How to Cite

DANESHVAR, M. ., FATTAHI, F. ., RAHMANI, H. R. ., MODARRES SANAVY, S. A. M. ., & SAMI, M. . (2020). Effect of municipal wastewater irrigation and well water on plant and soil characteristics. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 12(2), 409–419. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb12210767



Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb12210767