Determination of germination and seedling growth parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties under stress conditions

  • Fatih ÖNER University of Ordu, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Ordu
  • Ayşe Ö. Ş. SOYSAL University of Ordu, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Ordu
Keywords: abiotic stress; germination; NaCl; rice; salinity stress seedling


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food for more than half of the world’s population. Globally, rice is grown on approximately 160 million hectares with an average annual production of 740.96 million tonnes. Salinity is an important abiotic factor for germination. In this study rice varieties were analysed for salt stress tolerance at germination growth stage. The response of eight rice varieties against six (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 mM NaCl) salinity levels were studied at germination stage. Seeds of eight rice varieties (‘Yatkin’, ‘Miss-2013 Passali’, ‘Kale’, ‘Manyas Yildizi’, ‘Efe’, ‘Biga Incisi’ and ‘Osmancik-97’) were kept under six salt stress levels. Number of seeds germinated (number), germination rate (%), average germination time, fresh and dry weight of germinated seeds (g), fresh and dry weight of the coleoptile (g), fresh and dry weight of the radicle (g), the length of the coleoptile and radicle (mm) were recorded. The results showed that with increasing salt stress, germination in all the varieties was delayed. The increase in salt stress also reduced every measured trait significantly in all the varieties. Maximum germination percentage (100%) was observed in ‘Biga Incisi’ under all the salt stress levels. Our research data would be helpful for identification of the tolerant varieties which can be studied further in terms of economically.


Metrics Loading ...


Afzal I, Hussain B, Basra SMA, Rehman H (2012). Priming with moringa leaf extract reduces imbibitional chilling injury in spring maize. Seed Science and Technology 40(2):271-276.

Ahmad P, Wani R (2014). Biochemical and molecular approaches for drought tolerance in plants. In: Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment, Springer, New York pp 1-29.

Al-Karaki GN (200)1. Germination, sodium, and potassium concentrations of barley seeds as influenced by salinity. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24(3):511-522.

Anonymous (2018). Bibliography on salt tolerance, fibres, grains and special crops. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2018 November from

Anbumalarmathi J, Mehta P (2013). Effect of salt stress on germination of indica rice varieties. European Journal of Biological Sciences 6(1):1-6.

Ashraf M, Karim F, Rasul E (2002). Interactive effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and salt stress on growth, ion accumulation and photosynthetic capacity of two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Plant Growth Regulation 36(1):49-59.

Bohnert HJ, Nelson DE, Jensen RG (1995). Adaptations to environmental stresses. The Plant Cell 7(7):1099.

Çavuşoğlu K, Kılıç S, Kabar K (2007). Some morphological and anatomical observations during alleviation of salinity (NaCI) stress on seed germination and seedling growth of barley by polyamines. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 29(6):551-557.

Dash M, Panda SK (2001). Salt stress induced changes in growth and enzyme activities in germinating Phaseolus mungo seeds. Biologia Plantarum 44(4):587-589.

El-Mashad AA, Kamel EA (2001). Amelioration of NaCl stress in Pisum sativum Linn. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 39(5):469‐475.

FAO (2020). Food and agriculture organization of the united nations. Retrieved 2020 August 05 from

Grattan S, Zeng L, Shannon M, Roberts S (2002). Rice is more sensitive to salinity than previously thought. California Agriculture 56(6):189-198.

Gulzar S, Khan MA (2002). Alleviation of salinity-induced dormancy in perennial grasses. Biologia Plantarum 45(4):617-619.

Hakim MA, Juraimi AS, Begum M, Hanafi MM, Ismail MR, Selamat A (2010). Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 9(13):1911-1918.

Islam MM, Karim MA (2010). Evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes at germination and early seedling stage for their tolerance to salinity. The Agriculturists 8(2):57-65.

Jamil M, Rha ES (2007). Response of transgenic rice at germination and early seedling growth under salt stress. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10(23):4303-4306.

Kabar K, Baltepe S (1987). Alleviation of salinity stress on germination of barley seeds by plant growth regulators. Doğa Turkish Journal of Biology 3:108-117.

Kurniasih B, Greenway H, Colmer TD (2013). Tolerance of submerged germinating rice to 50-200 m M NaCl in aerated solution. Physiologia Plantarum 149(2):222-233.

Kwiatkowski J, King CR (1998). Salinity mapping for resource management within the M.D. of Acadia, Alberta. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton.

Linares OF (2002). African rice (Oryza glaberrima): history and future potential. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(25):16360-16365.

Munns R, Tester M (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59:651-681.

Vaughan DA, Lu BR, Tomooka N (2008). The evolving story of rice evolution. Plant Science 174(4):394-408.

Yeo AR, Flowers TJ (1986). Salinity resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a pyramiding approach to breeding varieties for saline soils. Functional Plant Biology 13(1):161-173.

How to Cite
ÖNER, F., & SOYSAL, A. Ö. Ş. (2020). Determination of germination and seedling growth parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties under stress conditions. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 12(3), 693-701.
Research articles