Structure and histochemistry of sorghum caryopsis in relation to grain-filling

  • S. RAVI SHANKAR Madras Christian College (Autonomous), Department of Botany, Chennai, 600 059
  • P. DAYANANDAN Madras Christian College (Autonomous), Department of Botany, Chennai, 600 059
Keywords: cereal anatomy; grain-filling; histochemistry; microscopy; sorghum caryopsis

Abstract

Anatomical and histochemical studies of ovary and caryopsis of sorghum reveal the importance of the chalazal complex in transporting nutrients from maternal sources to the filial diploid embryo and triploid endosperm. The presence of starch, protein, lipid, Ca, K, Mg, and Fe in various tissues at different stages of development can be revealed by a variety of histochemical techniques. Vascular supply ends at the base of the ovary and transport occurs through vascular parenchyma, pigment strand and nucellar projection where symplastic continuity is broken. Nutrients unloaded into an apoplastic placental sac then enter the endosperm and embryo through the aleurone transfer cells. The later possess characteristic wall ingrowth. The single layer of aleurone surrounding the endosperm may also help in transport during later stages of grain-filling. Grain-filling in C4 sorghum is compared with other C4 and C3 grasses showing the variety of strategies evolved to transport nutrients into filial tissues. Standardization of terminologies to describe the tissues of the crease region will help in further research and communication.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Artschwager E, McGuire RC (1949). Cytology of reproduction in Sorghum vulgare. Journal of Agricultural Research 78(2):659-673.

Becraft PW, Gutierrez-Marcos J (2012). Endosperm development: dynamic processes and cellular innovations underlying sibling altruism. WIREs Developmental Biology 1(4):579-593. https://doi.org/10.1002/wdev.31

Bihmidine S, Hunter CT III, Johns CE, Koch KE, Braun DM (2013). Regulation of assimilate import into sink organs: update on molecular drivers of sink strength. Frontiers in Plant Science 4:177. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00177

Clark G (1981). Staining procedures. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.

Cochrane MP, Duffus CM (1979). Morphology and ultrastructure of immature cereal grains in relation to transport. Annals of Botany 44(1):67-72. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a085707

Conn HJ (1977). Biological stains. In: Lillie RD (Ed). Williams and Wilkins, St. Louis.

Cook H, Oparka KJ (1983). Movement of fluorescein into isolated caryopses of wheat and barley. Plant, Cell & Environment 6(3):239-242. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-3040.ep11587641

Davis RW, Smith JD, Cobb BG (1990). A light and electron microscope investigation of the transfer cell region of maize caryopsis. Canadian Journal of Botany 68(3):471-479. https://doi.org/10.1139/b90-063

Eastin JD, Hultquist JH, Sullivan CY (1973). Physiologic maturity in grain sorghum. Crop Science 13(2):175-178. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1973.0011183X001300020008x

Ebenezer GAI (1997). Histochemical and developmental studies on germinating rice grains. PhD Thesis, University of Madras, India.

FAO (1995). Sorghum and millets in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Felker FC, Shannon JC (1980). Movement of 14C-labelled assimilates into kernels of Zea mays L.: an anatomical examination and microautoradiographic study of assimilate transfer. Plant Physiology 65(5):864-870. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4266247

Fischer KS, Wilson GL (1975a). Studies on grain production in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. III. The relative importance of assimilate supply, grain growth capacity and transport system. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 26(1):11-23. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9750011

Fischer KS, Wilson GL (1975b). Studies on grain production Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. V. Effect of planting density on growth and yield. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 26(1):31-41. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9750031

Fisher DB, Wang N (1993). A kinetic and micro autoradiographic analysis of (14C) sucrose import by developing wheat grains. Plant Physiology 101(2):391-398. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.101.2.391

Fulcher RG (1982). Fluorescence microscopy of cereals. Food Microstructure 1(2):7. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/foodmicrostructure/vol1/iss2/7

Gibson PT, Schertz KF (1977). Growth analysis of a sorghum hybrid and its parents. Crop Science 17(3):387-391. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1977.0011183X001700030011x

Giles KL, Bassett CM, Eastin JD (1975). The structure and ontogeny of the hilum region in Sorghum bicolor. Australian Journal of Botany 23(5):795-802. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT9750795

Grignon N, Touraine B, Durand M (1989). 6(5)carboxyfluorescein as a tracer of phloem sap translocation. American Journal of Botany 76(6):871-877. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2444542

Harris N, Oparka KJ (1994). Plant cell biology: a practical approach. Oxford University Press, New York.

Hawes C (1994). Electron microscopy. In: Harris N, Oparka KJ (Eds). Plant cell biology: practical approach. Oxford University Press, New York pp 69-96.

Hoshikawa K (1984). Development of endosperm tissue with special reference to the translocation of reserve substances in cereals. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 53(1):153-162. https://doi.org/10.1626/jcs.53.64

Jain M, Chourey PS, Li QB, Pring DR (2008). Expression of cell wall invertase and several other genes of sugar metabolism in relation to seed development in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Journal of Plant Physiology 165(3):331-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2006.12.003

Jensen WA (1962). Botanical histochemistry: principles and practice. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.

Johari RP, Mehta SI, Naik MS (1977). Changes in carbohydrate protein fractions and leucine-(C14) incorporation during sorghum grain development. Phytochemistry 16(3):311-314.

Jonathan P (1999). Histochemical studies on the caryopsis of bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea (Retz) Willd). M.Phil. Thesis, University of Madras, India.

Kladnik A, Chourey PS, Pring DR, Dermastia M (2006). Development of the endosperm of Sorghum bicolor during the endoreduplication-associated growth phase. Journal of Cereal Science 43(2):209-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.09.004

Krishnan S, Ebenezer GAI, Dayanandan P (2001). Histochemical localization of storage components in caryopsis of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Current Science 80(4):567-571. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24104248

Krishnan S, Dayanandan P (2003). Structural and histochemical studies on grain-filling in the caryopsis of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Biosciences 28(4):455-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02705120

Maiti R (1993). Morphological traits in crop improvement: case study – sorghum. In: Wesche-Ebeling AP, Garciduenas MR, Earl PR. Publicaciones Bioligicas, Mexico pp 1-283.

Maness NO, McBee GG (1986). Role of placental sac in endosperm carbohydrate import in sorghum caryopses. Crop Science 26(6):1201-1207. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1986.0011183X002600060026x

Oparka KJ (1991). Uptake and compartmentation of fluorescent probes by plant cells. Journal of Experimental Biology 42(5):565-579. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/42.5.565

Olsen OA (2004). Nuclear endosperm development in cereals and Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Supplement 16:S214-S227. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.017111

Patrick JW (1983). Photosynthate unloading from seed coats of Phaseolus vulgaris L. General characteristics and facilitated transfer. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenphysiologie 111(1):9-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-328X(83)80068-3

Patrick JW, Offler CE (1995). Post-sieve element transport of sucrose in developing seeds. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22(4):681-702. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP9950681

Paulson IW (1968). Embryogeny and caryopsis development of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Crop Science 4(1):10-13. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1969.0011183X000900010034x

Pearse AGE (1972). Histochemistry, theoretical and applied, vol. 1. Churchill Livingstone (3rd ed), London.

Pearse AGE (1980). Histochemistry, theoretical and applied, vol. 2. Churchill Livingstone (4th ed), London.

Peterson CA, Emanuel ME, Humphreys GB (1981). Pathway of movement of apoplastic fluorescent dye tracers through the endodermis at the site of secondary root formation in corn (Zea mays) and broad bean (Vicia faba). Canadian Journal of Botany 59(5):618-625. https://doi.org/10.1139/b81-087

Porter GA, Knievel DP, Shannon JC (1987). Assimilate unloading from maize (Zea mays L.) pedicel tissues. II. Evidence for regulation of unloading by cell turgor. Plant Physiology 83(1):131-136. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.85.2.558

Quinby JR (1972). Grain-filling period of sorghum parents and hybrids. Crop Science 12(5):690-691. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1972.0011183X001200050041x

Reddy PS, Reddy BVS, Kumar AA (2009). M 35-1 derived sorghum varieties for cultivation during the post-rainy season. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research 7:1-4.

http://ejournal.icrisat.org/Volume7/Sorghum_Millets/SG701.pdf

Reddy BVS, Reddy PS, Sadananda, AR, Dinakaran IE, Kumar AA, Deshpande SP, Srinivasa P (2012). Post-rainy season sorghum: constraints and breeding approaches. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research 10(1):1-12. http://ejournal.icrisat.org/Volume10/Sorghum_Millets/Postrainy.pdf

Rooney LW, Clark LE (1968). The chemistry and processing of sorghum grain. Cereal Chemistry Today 13(7):254-260.

Rooney LW, Sullins RD (1977). The structure of sorghum and its relation to processing and nutritional value. In: Dendy DAV (Ed). Proceedings of Symposium on Sorghum Millets Human Food. London: Tropical Products Institute pp 1-109.

Rooney LW, Miller FR (1982). Variation in the structure and kernel characteristics of sorghum. In: Rooney LW, Murty DS (Eds). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sorghum Grain Quality, 28-31 October 1981. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) pp 143.

Rooney LW, Faubion JM, Earp CF (1983). Scanning electron microscopy of cereal grain. In: Bechtel DB (Ed). New Frontiers in Food Microstructure. Minnesota: The American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. pp 201-239.

Rost TI, de Artucio PI, Risley EB (1984). Transfer cells in the placental pad and caryopsis coat of Pappophorum subbulbosum Arech. (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany 71(7):948-957. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1984.tb14161.x

Sabelli PA, Larkins BA (2009). The development of endosperm in grasses. Plant Physiology 149(1):14-26. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.108.129437

Sanders EH (1955). Developmental morphology of the kernel in grain sorghum. Cereal Chemistry 32(1):12-25.

Schumacher W (1933). Untersuchungen uber die Wanderung des fluoresceins in den Siebrohren [Studies on the migration of fluorescein in the sieve tubes]. Jahrbuch fur Wissenchaftliche Botanik 77:685-732.

Srinivas T, Bhashyam MK, Raju GN (1985). Anatomical and chemical peculiarities caused during the translocation of solute in the developing cereal grains. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 12(2):77-85.

Thorne JH, Rainbird RM (1983). An in vivo technique for the study of phloem unloading in seed coat of developing soyabean seeds. Plant Physiology 72(1):261-271. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.72.1.268

Ugalde TD, Jenner CF (1990a). Route of substrate movement into wheat endosperm. I. Carbohydrates. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 17(6):693-704. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP9900693

Ugalde TD Jenner CF (1990b). Route of substrate movement into wheat endosperm. II. Amino acids; Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 17(6):705-714. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP9900705

Vannalli, S, Kasturiba B, Naik RK, Yenagi N (2008). Nutritive value and quality characteristics of sorghum genotypes. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science 20(3):586-588. http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/863/

Wall JS, Blessin CW (1969). Composition and structure of sorghum grains. Cereal Science Today 14(8). https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/32067/PDF

Wang N, Fisher DB (1994a). Monitoring phloem unloading and post-phloem transport by micro perfusion of attached wheat grains. Plant Physiology 104(1):7-16. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.104.1.7

Wang N, Fisher DB (1994b). The use of fluorescent tracers to characterize the post-phloem transport pathway in maternal tissue of developing wheat grains. Plant Physiology 104(1):17-27. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.104.1.17

Wang HL, Offler CE, Patrick JW, Ugalde TD (1994). The cellular pathway of photosynthate transfer in the developing wheat grain. I. Delineation of a potential transfer pathway using fluorescent dyes. Plant Cell and Environment 17:257-266. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1994.tb00291.x

Wang H, Wang Z, Wang F, Gu Y, Liu Z (2012). Development of basal endosperm transfer cells in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and its relationship with caryopsis growth. Protoplasma 249(2):309-321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-011-0281-6

Waniska RD (2000). Structure, phenolic compounds, and antifungal proteins of sorghum caryopses. In: Technical and Institutional Options for Sorghum Grain Mold Management: Proceedings of an International Consultation. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: ICRISAT pp 72-106.

Winston AL (1903). The anatomy of the fruit of certain cultivated sorghums. Connecticut State Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report 26:326-328.

Wolswinkel P, Ammerlaan A (1983). Phloem unloading in developing seeds of Vicia faba L.: the effect of several inhibitors on the release of sucrose and amino acids by the seed coat. Planta 158(3):205-215. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01075256

Wright KM, Oparka KJ (1996). The fluorescent probe HPTS as a phloem-mobile, symplastic tracer: an evaluation using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Journal of Experimental Biology 47(3):439-446. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/47.3.439

Yang, Z, van Oosterom EJ, Jordan DR, Hammer GL (2009). Pre-anthesis ovary development determines genotypic differences in potential kernel weight in sorghum. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(4):1399-1408. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp019

Zeleznak K, Varriano-Marston A (1982). Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) ultrastructure. American Journal of Botany 69(8):1306-1313. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1982.tb13376.x

Published
2020-12-21
How to Cite
RAVI SHANKAR, S., & DAYANANDAN, P. (2020). Structure and histochemistry of sorghum caryopsis in relation to grain-filling. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 12(4), 852-868. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb12410714
Section
Research articles