Environmental impact and genetic expressions of new drought tolerant maize genotypes in derived savannah agro-ecology
Reduced water resources in sub-Saharan Africa will not only pose threat to the livelihood of poor resource farmers, but also food security in the region. Drought tolerant (DT) maize varieties hold promise to reducing poor resourced farmers’ vulnerability and improve food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten maize genotypes obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), were evaluated in 2015 and 2016 using a randomized complete block design experiment with three replications to estimate their genetic variability and predict their genetic advances in the derived savannah agro-ecology. Growth, phenological and yield data were collected from 10 middle row plants. Genetic advance, genotypic, phenotypic and environmental coefficients of variations and their variances were estimated. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses were also performed. The dendrogram showed that at 80% dissimilarity point, the genotypes were grouped into clusters A, B and C in both years. The first two principal components explained 91.8% and 93.3% of the total variation in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Number of grains cob-1, plant height and number of days to physiological maturity were consistent in explaining the variations observed in the maize population. Heritability estimates in broad sense ranged from 1.35% for number of leaves to 87.43% for grain yield per hectare. The genetic parameters studied showed significant variations among the growth, phenological and yield data collected that warrants selection and maize improvement program using the DT maize inbred lines in derived savannah agro-ecology.
Andrade JAC (2019). Genetic variability and breeding potential of Flintisa composite of maize in two levels of technology. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 19(2):145-152. https://doi.org/10.1590/1984-70332019v19n2a21
Ansah SG, Adudapaah H, Kumaga F, Gracen V, Nartey FK (2016). Evaluation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) genotypes for phosphorus use efficiency. Acta Horticulturae 1127:373-380. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1127.58
Azad MAK, Biswas BK, Alam N, Alam SKS (2012). Genetic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. The Agriculturists 10(1):64-70. https://doi.org/10.3329/agric.v10i1.11066
Bhiusal TN, Lal GM, Marker S, Synrem GJ (2017). Genetic variability and traits association in maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 19(1):59-65.
Brandt M, Wigneron JP, Chave J, Tagesson T, Penuelas J, Ciais P, … Fensholt R (2018). Satellite passive microwaves reveal recent climate-induced carbon losses in African drylands. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2(5):827. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0530-6
Burton GW (1952). Qualitative inheritance in grasses. Proceedings of the 6th International Grassland Congress, pp 277-283.
Chukwudi UP, Agbo CU (2016). Characterization and preliminary evaluation of local germplasm of Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. accessions in Enugu, Nigeria. Agro-Science 15(2):15-22. https://doi.org/10.4314/as.v15i2.3
CIMMYT (2015). A quarterly bulletin of the drought tolerant maize for Africa Project 4(4). Retrieved 2018 March from https://repository.cimmyt.org/
Ene CO, Ogbonna PE, Agbo CU, Chukwudi UP (2016). Studies of phenotypic and genotypic variation in sixteen cucumber genotypes. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 76(3):307-313. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392016000300007
Fehr WR (1987). Principles of cultivar development: Crop Species, First Ed. Macmillan; New York.
Fisher M, Abate T, Lunduka RW, Asnake W, Alemayehu Y, Madulu RB (2015). Drought tolerant maize for farmer adaptation to drought in sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of adoption in eastern and southern Africa. Climatic Change 133:283-299. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1459-2
Hartings H, Berardo N, Mazzinelli GF, Valoti P, Verderio A, Motto M (2008). Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among maize (Zea mays L.) Italian landraces by morphological traits and AFLP profiling. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 117(6):831-842. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-008-0823-2
IWMI (2019). International Water Management Institute (IWMI)-World Water Day. Voicing water visions in river basins across the developing world. Retrieved 2019 March 22 from www.iwmi.cgiar.org/news/campaigns/world-water-day/2019-22/
Kansiime MK, Mastenbroek A (2016). Enhancing resilience of farmer seed system to climate-induced stresses: Insights from a case study in West Nile region Uganda. Journal of Rural Studies 47:220-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.08.004
Liu YA, Hou JH, Gao ZJ, Zhou W (2006). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of introduced maize varieties. Journal of Maize Sciences 14(2):16-18.
Milatovic D, Nikolic D, Durovic D (2010). Variability, heritability and correlation of some factors affecting productivity in peach. Horticultural Science 37(3):79-87. https://doi.org/10.17221/63/2009-HORTSCI
Ndukauba J, Nwofia GE, Okocha PI, Ene-Obong EE (2015). Variability in egusi-melon genotypes (Citrullus lanatus [Thumb] Matsum and Nakai) in derived savannah environment in South-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Plant Research 5(1):19-26. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.plant.20150501.04
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) (2014). Agriculture in Africa. Transformation and Outlook. Retrieved 2019 February 15 from www.nepad.org/system/files/Agriculture%20in%20Africa.pdf
OECD/FAO (2016). Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prospects and challenges for the next decade. In: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025, OECD Publishing, Paris.
Rahman M, Hoque A, Hossain Md. A, Al Bari Md A (2017). Variability and traits association analyses in maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. The Agriculturists 15(2):101-114.
Ramirez-Cabral NYZ, Kumar L, Shabani F (2017). Global alterations in areas of suitability for maize production from climate change and using a mechanistic species distribution model (CLIMEX). Scientific Reports 7:5910. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05804-0
Rosegrant MW, Msangi S (2011). Feeding the future's changing diets: Implications for agricultural markets, nutrition, and policy. In: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2020 Conference: Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health. New Delhi, pp 12.
Sharma JR (1988). Statistical and biometrical techniques in plant breeding. First ed., New Age International Limited Publishers; New Delhi.
Shukla S, Bhargava A, Chatterjee A, Pandey AC, Mishra BK (2010). Diversity in phenotypic and nutritional traits in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.), a nutritionally under-utilized crop. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture90(1):139-144. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3797
Soil Survey Staff (2003). Keys to soil taxonomy. 9th Ed. USDA, United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Subramanian A, Subbaraman N (2010). Hierarchical cluster analysis of genetic diversity in maize germplasm. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding 1(4):431-436.
Uba CU, Agbo CU, Chukwudi UP, Efusie AA, Muojiama SO (2018). Field evaluation of yield and yield component traits of breeding lines of maize over two seasons in derived savannah agro-ecology. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 10:567-574. https://doi.org/10.25835/nsb10410329
Ullah MZ, Hassan MJ, Chowdhury AZMKA, Saki AI, Rahman AHMA (2012). Genetic variability and correlation in exotic cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics 25(1):17-23. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjpbg.v25i1.17008
Verma P, Maurya SK, Yadav H, Panchbhaiya A (2017). Determination of genetic divergence in pointed gourd by principal component and non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 9(4):2421-2426. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v9i4.1548
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.