A suspected case of hypoxia-induced pre-renal azotemia in an old part-Arab stallion: case report and review of the literature
The kidneys maintain homeostasis and this function is compromised in hypoxic conditions. Hematology and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on a 17-year old Nigerian part-Arab stallion, who was observed to be docile, cachexic, and has bilateral ocular mucus discharge. Ticks were seen attached around the inguinal region. The mucous membrane of the eyes was congested, animal was partially insensitive to its environment and had an abnormal posture and gait. Blood samples for hematology and clinical biochemistry analyses were collected from the jugular vein. Hematology and serum biochemistry determinations followed standard procedures. Hematological analysis revealed that the stallion had secondary absolute polycythemia, low erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and total leukocyte count were within the respective reference ranges. The clinical biochemistry profile of the horse showed normal serum activity of alanine aminotransferase and elevated serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, normal serum total protein, albumin, decreased serum globulin concentrations, with a high albumin: globulin (A/G) ratio. The stallion also had normal total cholesterol level and an abnormally high serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. These findings were suggestive of hypoxia-induced pre-renal azotemia.
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