Using two plant growth promoting bacteria to sustainably reduce the drought-induced loss in Triticum aestivum yield
In a greenhouse experiment, the inoculated and uninoculated grains with Azospirillum brasilense NO40 or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were sown in unsterilized sandy soil and watered normally till the 8th day. Thereafter, the drought stress was initiated by watering pots once every 10 days while the unstressed pots were irrigated normally once every 5 days. Samples of spikes and dry grains were collected after 120 days from sowing. The results indicated that the inoculated-drought-stressed plants maintained significantly higher values of all of the measured yield parameters, where the yielded grains had higher amounts of the direct reducing sugars, sucrose, starch; lower contents of total soluble proteins and the total free amino acids, and altered protein patterns compared to those of the uninoculated-drought-stressed plants. SDS-PAGE of the yielded grains showed that drought led to the appearance of some newly synthesized stress protein bands and disappearance of others. Inoculation with PGPB resulted in the re-appearance of some of the disappearing bands and the synthesis of new others. Meanwhile, wheat inoculation under normal conditions resulted in significantly promoted grain yields with higher contents of carbohydrates, total soluble proteins and total free amino acids than that of the uninoculated control. It has been proved that treating wheat plants with the PEG-tolerant Azospirillum brasilense NO40 or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia that were compatible with the systems into which they were introduced and possess multiple plant growth promoting traits, can be an efficient strategy to enhance wheat growth and productivity, not only under normal conditions, but also under drought stress.
Abid G, M’hamdi M, Mingeot D, Aouida M, Aroua I, Muhovski Y, … Jebara M (2016). Effect of drought stress on chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression patterns in faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 63:536-552.
Askary M, Mostajeran A, Amooaghaei R, Mostajera M (2009). Influence of the co-inoculation Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium melilotiplus 2,4 -D on grain yield and N, P, K Content of Triticum aestivum (cv. Baccros and Mahdavi). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 5(3):296-307.
Aslam M, Maqbool MA, Cengiz R (2015). Mechanisms of drought resistance. In: Drought stress in maize (Zea Mays L.). Springer briefs in agriculture. Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, New York Dordrecht, London pp 19-36.
Bano Q, Ilyas N, Bano A, Zafar N, Akram A, Hassan F (2013). Effect of Azospirillum inoculation on maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45:13-20.
Blum A (2011). Drought resistance and its improvement. In: plant breeding for water-limited environments. Springer New York, New York pp 53-152.
Bosl B, Grimminger V, Walter S (2006). The molecular chaperone Hsp104--a molecular machine for protein disaggregation. Journal of Structural Biology 156:139-148.
Bradford M (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72:248-258.
Bresson J, Varoquax F, Bontpart T, Touraine B, Vile D (2013). The PGPR strain Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM 196 induces a reproductive delay and physiological changes that result in improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist 200:558-569.
Castillo P, Escalante M, Gallardo M, Alemano S, Abdala G (2013). Effects of bacterial single inoculation and co-inoculation on growth and phytohormone production of sunflower seedlings under water stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 35:2299-2309.
Claeys H, Van Landeghem S, Dubois M, Maleux K, Inze D (2014). What is stress? Dose-response effects in commonly used in vitro stress assays. Plant Physiology 165:519-527.
CoHort software. (1998). CoStat Statistical Software (6,3). California, USA.
Conrath U, Beckers G, Flors V, García-Agustín P, Jakab G, Mauch F, … Mauch-Mani B (2006). Priming: getting ready for battle. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 19:1062-1071.
Creus CM, Sueldo RJ, Barassi CA (2004). Water relations and yield in Azospirillum inoculated wheat exposed to drought in the field. Canadian Journal of Botany 82:273-281.
Damania R, Desbureaux S, Hyland M, Islam A, Moore S, Rodella AS, … Zaveri E (2017). Uncharted waters: the new economics of water scarcity and variability. World Bank, Washington DC.
Darkwa K, Ambachew D, Mohammed H, Asfaw A, Blair MW (2016). Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia. The Crop Journal 4:367-376.
Daryanto S, Wang L, Jacinthe PA (2017). Global synthesis of drought effects on cereal, legume, tuber and root crops production: A review. Agricultural Water Management 179:1833.
De Leonardis AM, Mastrangelo AM, Petrarulo M, De Vita P (2012). Genetic and molecular aspects of plant response to drought in annual crop species. In: Advances in selected plant physiology aspects. (Eds) Montanaro G. and Dichio B. In Tech, Rijeka, Croatia pp 45-73.
Desai S, Grover M, Amalraj ELD, Kumar GP, Ahmed SKMH (2012). Exploiting plant growth promoting rhizo-microorganisms for enhanced crop productivity. In: Microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and biotechnology (Eds) Prakash A, Satyanarayana T, Johri BN Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht pp 227-241.
Dong S, Beckles DM (2019). Dynamic changes in the starch-sugar interconversion within plant source and sink tissues promote a better abiotic stress response. Journal of Plant Physiology 234(235):80-93.
Efeoglu B (2009). Heat shock proteins and heat shock response in plants. Gazi University Journal of Science 22(2):67-75.
El-Shami MEM, Abdel-Karim AA, Hanna NS, Towfelis MB, Tammam AM, Gedan MK, … Ashoush HA (2000). Gemmiza 9: a new Egyptian high yielding and rust resistant bread wheat cultivar for Delta region. Journal of Agricultural Science, Mansoura University 25:7407-7419.
Etesami H, Maheshwari DK (2018). Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) with multiple plant growth promoting traits in stress agriculture: Action mechanisms and future prospects. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 156:225-246.
Fahad S, Bajwa AA, Nazir U, Anjum SA, Farooq A, Zohaib A… Huang J (2017). Crop production under drought and heat stress: plant responses and management options. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:1-16.
FAO and EBRD (2015). Egypt: Wheat Sector Review. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
FAO (2015). National Investment Profile: Water for Agriculture and Energy (Egypt). Rome, Italy.
FAO-Aquastat (2018). Retrieved from FAO-Aquastat database: Country Profile: Egypt: Retrieved at 22 November 2017 from http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/ countries_regions/EGY/
Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA (2009). Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29:185-212.
FAS/USDA (2018). Grain: world markets and trade. United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service.
Forni C, Duca D, Glick BR (2017). Mechanisms of plant response to salt and drought stress and their alteration by rhizobacteria. Plant and Soil 410:335-356.
Ghatak A, Chaturvedi P, Weckwerth W (2017). Cereal crop proteomics: systemic analysis of crop drought stress responses towards marker-assisted selection breeding. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:757.
Grover M, Madhubala R, Ali SZ, Yadav SK, Venkateswarlu B (2014). Influence of Bacillus spp. strains on seedling growth and physiological parameters of sorghum under moisture stress conditions: Bacillus spp. strains influence sorghum under moisture stress. Journal of Basic Microbiology 54:951-961.
Gururani MA, Upadhyaya CP, Baskar V, Venkatesh J, Nookaraju A, Park SW (2013). Plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria enhance abiotic stress tolerance in Solanum tuberosum through inducing changes in the expression of ROS-scavenging enzymes and improved photosynthetic performance. Journal of plant growth regulation 32:245-258.
Gusain YS, Singh US, Sharma AK (2015). Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant and susceptible cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 14:764-773.
Kampinga HH, Craig EA (2010). The HSP70 chaperone machinery: J proteins as drivers of functional specificity. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 11:579-592.
Kasim WA, Nessem AA, Gaber A (2017). Alleviation of drought stress in Vicia faba by seed priming with ascorbic acid or extracts of garlic and carrot. The 7th Inter. Conf. “Plant & Microbial Biotech. & their Role in the Development of the Society”. Egyptian Journal of Botany 45-59.
Kasim WA, Osman ME, Omar MN, Abd El-Daim IA, Bejai S, Meijer J (2013). Control of drought stress in wheat using plant-growth-promoting bacteria. Journal of plant growth regulation 32:122-130.
Copyright (c) 2020 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.