Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity of Ganoderma applanatum (Pres.) Pat. Extract Mediated Silver Nanoparticles on Rat

  • Sukumar DANDAPAT Ranchi University, Department of Zoology, Ranchi, 834008, Jharkhand
  • Manoj KUMAR St. Xavier’s College, Department of Zoology, Ranchi, 834001, Jharkhand
  • Rakesh RANJAN Ranchi University, Department of Zoology, Ranchi, 834008, Jharkhand
  • Manoranjan P. SINHA Ranchi University, Department of Zoology, Ranchi, 834008, Jharkhand
Keywords: fungi; haematology; medicine; nanoparticles; toxicity


Ganoderm applanatum is a polypore macrofungi and traditionally used as medicine rather than fodder. Silver nanoparticles mediated by G. applanatum extract were synthesized, characterized and toxicity impacts were investigated for their pharmacological and medicinal uses. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were of average 58.78 nm in diameter with -13.8 mV zetpotential, analysed by dynamic light scattering method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of synthesized nanoparticles confirmed the capping and stabilizing with mycochemicals, that showed transmittance at   3606 cm-1 corresponds to O-H stretch for phenol, 2430 cm-1 corresponds to N-H stretch for primary and secondary amines. 2000 mg kg-1, 200 mg kg-1 and 400 mg kg-1 doses of silver nanoparticles showed non-significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight and organ weight. Non-significant increase in RBC indices were observed and significant (p<0.05) increase in WBC count (7.28±0.41 × 103 µL-1 and 8.41±0.35 × 103 µL-1) at 200 mg kg-1 and 400 mg kg-1 doses of silver nanoparticles  were observed. Thus, G. applanatum extract mediated silver nanoparticles can be used pharmacologically and medicinally due to their nontoxic effect.


Metrics Loading ...


Adedapo AA, Abatan MO, Olorunsogo OO (2004). Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on hematological and biochemical parameters of rats. Veterinary Archives 74(1): 53-62.

Albanese A, Tang PS, Chan WC (2012). The effect of nanoparticle size, shape, and surfacen chemistry on biological systems. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 14:1-16.

Ambali FS, Onukak C, Idris BS, Yaqub SL, Aliyu MH, Kawu UM (2010). Vitamin C attenuates short-term hematological and biochemical alterations induced by acute chlorpyrifos exposure in Wistar rats. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 1(10):465-477.

Arika WM, Nyamai DW, Musila MN, Ngugi MP, Njagi ENM (2016). Hematological markers of in vivo toxicity. Journal of Hematology and Thromboembolic Diseases 4(2):1-7.

Arya V, Thakur N, Kashyap CP (2012). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts of Psidium leaves. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 1(1):1-6.

Athar M, Das AJ (2014). Therapeutic nanoparticles: state-of-the-art of nanomedicine. Advance Materials Reviews 1(1):25-37.

Bhattacharjee S (2016). DLS and zeta potential - what they are and what they are not? Journal of Control Release 10(235):337-351.

Bini M, Tondo C, Capsoni D, Mozzati MC, Albini B, Galinetto P (2018). Super paramagnetic ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles: the effect of Ca and Gd doping. Material Chemistry and Physics 204:72-82.

Brady JB, Newton RM, Boardman SJ (1995). New uses for powder X-ray diffraction experiments in the undergraduate curriculum. Journal of Geological Education 43(5):466-470.

Chen H, Shao L, Ming T, Sun Z, Zhao C, Yang B, Wang J (2010). Understanding the photothermal conversion efficiency of gold nanocrystals. Small 6(20):2272-2280.

Dandapat S, Kumar M, Ranjan R, Sinha MP (2018). Pleurotus tuber- regium (Rumph. ex Fr.) Singer a potent source of antioxidant. Balneo Research Journal 9(3):228-231.

Dandapat S, Kumar M, Sinha MP (2014). Synthesis and characterization of green silver nanoparticles mediated by Aegle marmelos (L.) leaf extract. In: Subbiah L, Palanisamy S, Natesan S (Ed). Nanobio pharmaceutical technology. Elsevier. A division of Reed Elsevier India Pvt Ltd, pp 31-37.

Dandapat S, Sinha MP (2015b). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Rumph. ex Fr.) Singer. Advances in Biological Research 9(3):140-145.

Dandapat S, Sinha MP, Kumar M, Jaggi Y (2015a). Hepatoprotective efficacy of medicinal mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. Environmental and Experimental Biology 13(3):103-108.

Firdhouse MJ, Lalitha P, Sripathi SK (2012). Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf ethanol extract of Pisonia grandis (R. Br). Der Pharma Chemica 4(6):2320-2326.

Gibson JD, Khanal BP, Zubarev ER (2007). Paclitaxel-functionalized gold nanoparticles. Journal of American Chemical Society 129(37):11653-11661.

Gujral SS (2015). UV-Visible spectral analysis of boric acid in different solvents: a case study. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 6(2):830-834.

Gurunathan S, Han JW, Park J-H, Kim JH (2014). A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles. Nanoscale Research Letters 9(248):1-11.

Haider A, Kang I-K (2015). Preparation of silver nanoparticles and their industrial and biomedical applications: A comprehensive review advances in materials science and engineering. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 165257:1-16.

Holsapple MP, Farland WH, Landry TD, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Carter JM, Walker NJ, Thomas KV (2005). Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials, part II: Toxicological and safety evaluation of nanomaterials, current challenges and data needs. Toxicological Sciences 88(1):12-17.

Imani M, Halimi M, Khara H (2015). Effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on hematological parameters of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comparative Clinical Pathology 24(3):491-495.

IMUSG (2002). Instruction Manual User System Guide. IRPrestige-21 (P/N 206-72010) Shimadzu Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer. Shimazu Corporation, Analytical & measuring instrument division, Koyoto, Japan pp 3:1-27. Retrieved January 19, 2014 form nanoopticslab/manuals/optics-03/private/IRPrestige21%20Users%20 System%20Guide.pdf.

Iravani S, Korbekandi H, Mirmohammadi SV, Zolfaghari B (2014). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 9(6):385-406.

Ishikawa F, Miyazaki S (2005). A functional role of neutrophils in the regulation of innate and acquired immunity to bacterial infection. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8:940-948.

Keong CY, Chen X, Jamal JA, Wang Q, Lan J (2012). Preliminary results of determination of chemical changes on Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (Higher Basidiomycetes) carried by Shenzhou I spaceship with FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 14(3):295-305.

Khan M, Khan M, Adil SF, Tahir MN, Tremel W, Alkhathlan HZ, Al-Warthan A, Siddiqui MRH (2013). Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract. International Journal of Nanomedicine 8(1):1507-1516.

Korbekandi H, Iravani S, Abbasi S (2012). Optimization of biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 87(7):932-937.

Kuatsienu LE, Ansah C, Adinortey MB (2017). Toxicological evaluation and protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Launaea taraxacifolia on gentamicin induced rat kidney injury. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 7(7):640-646.

Kuila HK, Venkatesh N, Bhowmik H, Kuila U (2018). Metallic nanoparticle: a review. Biomedical Journal of Science Research Technology 4(2):1-11.

Kumar DSRS, Senthilkumar P, Surendran L, Sudhagar B (2017). Ganodermalucidum-oriental mushroom mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles conjugated with doxorubicin and evaluation of its anticancer potential on human breast cancer MCF-7/DOX cells. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 9(9):267-274.

Kumar M, Dandapat S, Ranjan R, Kumar A, Sinha, MP (2018). Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Punica granatum aqueous leaf extract. Journal of Microbiology and Experimentation, 6(4):175-178.

Kumar M, Sinha MP (2017). Green nanotechnology: synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Swertia chirayita. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 9(3):443-448.

Kumar VSS, Rao KV (2013). X-ray peak broadening analysis and optical studies of ZnO nanoparticles derived by surfactant assisted combustion synthesis. Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics 5(2):20-26.

Lim JK, Yeap SP, Che HX, Low SC (2013). Characterization of magnetic nanoparticle by dynamic light scattering. Nanoscale Research Letters 8(381):1-14.

Makarov VV, Love AJ, Sinitsyna OV, Makarova SS, Yaminsky IV, Taliansky ME, Kalinina NO (2014). Green Nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Acta Naturae 6(1):35-44.

Menaga D, Mahalingam PU, Rajakumar S, Ayyasamy PM (2012). Evaluation of phytochemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of Pleurotus florida mushroom. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 5(4):102-106.

Mizuno T (1999). The extraction and development of antitumour-active polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in Japan. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1(1):9-29.

Nanocomposix (2015). Nanocomposix's guide to dynamic light scattering measurement and analysis: Guidelines for dynamic light scattering measurement and analysis. V (1.5) pp 1-8. Retrieved July 25, 2016 form

Niemela T, Miettinen O (2008). The identity of Ganoderma applanatum (Basidiomycota). Taxon 57(3): 963-966.

Nishiyama N (2007). Nanomedicine: nanocarriers shape up for long life. Nature Nanotechnology 2(4):203-204.

Njoya EM, Kamini MFG, Abia WA, Pechangou SN, Njayou FN, Tchana AN, Moundipa PF (2008). Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of Codiaeum variegatum leaves on Wistar albino rodents of both sexes. Journal of Complementary Medicine Research 7(2):108-114.

OECD (2008a). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing chemicals Section-4. Test No. 425, Acute oral toxicity up and down procedure pp 1-27. Retrieved 2016 April 25 form

OECD (2008b). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Guidelines for the testing of chemicals. 407 adopted: 3 October 2008 pp 1-13. Retrieved April 25, 2016 from

Ogbonnia SO, Mbaka GO, Anyika EN, Osegbo OM, Igbokwe NH (2010). Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice and subchronic toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (fam. Asteraceae) in rats. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1(5):859-865.

Prasad SR, Elango K, Damayanthi D, Saranya JS (2013). Formulation and evaluation of Azathioprine loaded silver nanopartilces for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3(23):28-32.

Saleem U, Amin S, Ahmad B, Azeem H, Anwar F, Mary S (2017) Acute oral toxicity evaluation of aqueous ethanolic extract of Saccharum munja Roxb. roots in albino mice as per OECD 425 TG. Toxicology Reports 4:580-585.

Sambale F, Wagner S, Stahl F, Khaydarov RR, Scheper T, Bahnemann D (2015). Investigations of the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles on mammalian cell lines. Journal of Nanomaterials 16(1):6.

Schalm OW, Jain NC. Carrol EJ (1975). Veterinary haematology. 3rd Edition. Lea and Fabiger Publication, Philadephia pp 807-807.

Shin SW, Song IH, Um SH (2005). Role of physicochemical properties in nanoparticle toxicity. Nanomaterials (Basel) 5(3):1351-1365.

Sperling RA, Parak WJ (2010). Surface modification, functionalization and bioconjugation of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society a Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 368:1333-1383.

Tucker IM, Corbett JCW, Fatkin J, Mcneil-Watson F (2015). Laser doppler electrophoresis applied to colloids and surfaces. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 20(4):215-226.

Usman SB, Kyari SU, Abdulrahman FI, Ogbe AO, Ahmad GY, Ibrahim UI, Sakuma AM (2012). Proximate composition, phytochemical and elemental analysis of some organic solvent extract of the wild mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2(4):24-35.

Vilar G, Tulla-Puche J, Albericio F (2012). Polymers and drug delivery systems. Current Drug Delivery 9(4):01-28.

Wasser SP (2011). Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 89(5):1323-1332.

Zhang L, Gu FX, Chan JM, Wang AZ, Langer RS, Farokhzad OC (2008). Nanoparticles in Medicine: therapeutic applications and developments. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 83(5):761-769.

ZNUM (Zetasizer Nano User manual). (2013). Zetasizernano series user manual, Malvern. MAN0485 (1.1). Retrived June 13, 2016 from manuals/MAN0485EN.html.

Zoroddu MA, Medici S, Ledda A, Nurchi VM, Lachowicz JI, Peana M (2014). Toxicity of nanoparticles. Current Medicinal Chemistry 21(33):3837-3853.

How to Cite
DANDAPAT, S., KUMAR, M., RANJAN, R., & SINHA, M. P. (2019). Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity of Ganoderma applanatum (Pres.) Pat. Extract Mediated Silver Nanoparticles on Rat. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 11(3), 351-363.
Research articles