Assessment of the Effectiveness of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Sodium Benzoate on the Shelf Life of Soymilk
The significance of preservatives in food preparations lies in their ability to inhibit or retard the growth of microorganisms which in turn reduces their deteriorative effects on food. The preservative effects at varying concentrations (1%, 3%, 5% v/v) of sodium benzoate was compared with extracts of ginger, cloves and a combination of the two extracts on soymilk at refrigerated temperature. Indices for measurement of shelf life included drop in pH, protein and fat contents, changes in colour and odour, as well as changes in microbial counts. The protein, fat contents and pH decreased more with storage time and these were concentration dependent. The bacterial counts during 25 days of storage ranged from 1.0 x 104 to 6.4 x 105, while fungal counts ranged from 8.0 x 103 to 18.4 x 104. At all concentrations, sodium benzoate exhibited the best preservative effect on the soymilk samples. Reduction in total microbial count was more pronounced in samples treated with clove extract than those treated with ginger extract, while the extracts’ combination exhibited the best preservative effect of all the spice treated samples. The use of ginger as a preservative increased shelf life of soymilk by 7 days, cloves extended shelf life by 10 days, while the combination of the extracts maintained a longer shelf life of 13 days. The bacterial isolates include Bacillus cereus Strain KWS2, Bacillus subtilis strain BTBS, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain PJ-5, Bacillus safensis strain SABA5 and Lactobacillus fermentum strain SABA5, while the fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergilus fumigatus, Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisae. The phytochemicals found in ginger and cloves include tannins, phenol, alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, coumarin and saponins, which might be responsible for the antimicrobial properties. The results of the study showed that a combination of ginger and cloves extracts is a better preservative of soymilk than the single extracts, as natural preservatives.
Adeleke OE, Adeniyi BA, Akinrinmisi AA (2000). Microbiological quality of local soymilk. A public health appraisal. African Journal of Biomedical Research 3:89-92.
Adesokan IA (2014). Preservative activity of ethanolic extract of ginger in wara, a West African traditional soft cheese. Journal of Food Technology Research 1(1):45-51.
Agboke AA, Uduma E, Osonwa C, Emmanuel O, Ibezim C (2011). Evaluation of microbiology quality of some soybean milk products consumed in Nigeria. Prime Journals 1(2):25-30.
Ahn J, Graun I, Mustapha A (2007). Effect of plant extract on microbial growth, colour change and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. Food Microbiology 24(1):7-14.
Akponah E, Okoro IO, Ubogu M, Ejukonemu FE (2013). Effects of ethanolic extracts of garlic, ginger and rosemary on the shelf-life of orange juice. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research 1(7):197-204.
AOAC (1990). Official methods of analysis. (15th Ed). Association of analytical chemist Washington D.C., USA.
AOAC (2000). Ash and fat analysis (gravimetric method). In: Official methods of analysis. NO.33.2.10. AOAC International, Gathersburg, Maryland, USA.
Awort OC, Egounlety M (1985). Preservation of West African soft cheese by chemical treatment. Journal of Dairy Resources 52:189-195.
Awoyinka O, Balogun IO, Ogunnowo AA (2007). Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivity of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Medical Plant Research 1(3):67-65.
Belewu MA, Belewu KY, Nkwunowo CC (2005). Effect of biological and chemical preservatives on the shelf life of West African soft cheese. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(10):1076-1079.
Beyoglu D, Idle JR (2012). The glycine deportation system and its pharmacological consequences. Pharmacology Thermal 135(2):151-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2012.05.003
Dashiell KE, Singh SR, Nakaayama O, Ogundipe HO, Akeem CN (1990). Soybean research at IITA GLIP. Research monograph No. 1, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Dorman JD, Surai P, Deans SG (2000a). In vitro antioxidant activity of a number of plant essential oils and phytoconstituent. Journal of Essential Oil Research 12:241-248.
Edward KC (2012). The effect of ginger and garlic on microbial load and shelf life of Kunnun-zaki. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2(5):150-153.
Fawole MO, Oso BA (1998). Laboratory manual of microbiology. Spectrum books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria pp 26-31.
Gesinde AT, Ovawove OM, Adebisi A (2008). Comparative studies on the quality and quantity of soymilk from different varieties of soybean. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7(1):157-160.
Gonzalez KC, Sagebin FR, Oleveira PG, Glock L (2010). A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva 1(1):1637-1641.
Gottardi D, Bukvicki D, Prasad S, Tyagi AK (2016). Beneficial effects of spices in food preservation and safety. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:13-94.
Hassan HA, Raaul AM, Razik BM, Hassan BA (2012). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts isolated from Zingiber officinale by different solvents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis 3(9):184-188.
Hyldgaard M, Mygind B, Meyer RI (2012). Essential oils in food preservation, mode of action, synergies and interaction with food matrix components. Frontiers in Microbiology 3:12.
Kabiru YA, Makun HA, Saidu AN, Muhammad LH, Nuntah LC, Amoo SA (2012). Soymilk preservation using extracts of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum Myrtaceae) and guinea-pepper (Xylopia aethiopica Annonaceae). Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 3(5):44-50.
Kaushik P, Goyal P (2011). Evaluation of various crude extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome for potential antibacterial activity: a study in vitro. Advance Microbiology 1:7-12.
Kikuzaki H, Kawasaki Y, Nakatani N (1994). Structure of antioxidative compounds in ginger. American Chemist Society. Washington District, USA pp 237-243.
Kolapo AL, Oladimeji GR (2008). Production and quality evaluation of soy-corn milk. Journal of Applied Biosciences 1(2):40-45.
Mbajiuka CS, Obeagu EI, Ifediora AC, Ugwu GU (2014a). Isolation and identification of microorganisms involved in the spoilage of soymilk. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 9(5):29-36.
Mbajuika CS, Obeagu EI, Ochei KC, Onyemairo NC (2014b). Effect of ginger and garlic on the microbial shelf-life of Burukutu. International Journal of Microbiological Research 5(2):117-123.
Obi CD (2015). Assessment of the preservative effects of different local spices and their flavor acceptability in Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx drinks. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 18(1):2161-2165.
Odu NN, Egbo NN (2012). Assessment of the effect of different preservatives on the keeping quality of soymilk stored at different temperatures. Nature and Science 10(9):1-9.
Oroniran OO, Olunlade BA, Otegbayo BO (2011). Spices as natural preservative in milk. In: Enujiugha VN (6th ed). Book of abstracts. Nigeria Institute of food science and technology, Western chapter half yearly conference. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria pp 21-22.
Sagdiç O, Karahan AG, Ozcan M, Ozcan G (2003a). Effect of some spices extracts on bacterial inhibition. Food Science and Technology International 9:353-359.
Shahmohammadi M, Javadi M, Nassiri-Asl M (2016). An overview on the effects of sodium benzoate as a preservative in food products. Biotechnology and Health Science 3(3):35-84.
Shelef LA (1983). Antimicrobial effects of spices. Journal of Food Safety 6:29-44.
Stanojevic D, Comic L, Stefanovic O, Solujic-Sukdolak S (2009). Antimicrobial effects of sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite and potassium sorbate and their synergistic action in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science 15(4):307-311.
Uhart M, Maks N, Ravishankar S (2006). Effect of spices on growth and survival of Salmonella typhimuriumdt 104 in ground beef stored at 4 °C and 8 °C. Journal of Food Safety 26(2):115-125.
Vwioko DE, Osemwegie OO, Akawe JN (2013). The effect of ginger and garlic phytogenics on the shelf life and microbial contents of homemade soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruit juice. International Journal of the Nigeria Society for Experimental Biology 25(2):31-38.
Zamal SS, Uddin MB, Huda MS, Hannan A, Choudhury RU (2011). Effect of preservatives on the shelf-life of soymilk. Journal of Eco-Friendly Agriculture 8(2):23-38.
Zia-ur-Rehman A, Salariya M, Habib F (2003). Antioxidant activity of ginger extract in sunflower oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83:624-639.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.