Effects of Weed Density and Distance on the Growth and Yield of Two Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) Varieties

  • Wasiu Olanrewaju OPADOKUN University of Ilorin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology
  • Kehinde Stephen OLORUNMAIYE University of Ilorin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology
Keywords: competition; density; distance; okra; weed

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted at the botanical garden of the University of Ilorin to determine the effects of weed density and distance on the growth and yield of two varieties of okra (NHAe-40 days and Kirikoi). The experiment was a complete randomized block design with eleven treatments and three replicates. The treatment details include T0 = No weed, T1 = One weed per plant T2= Two weeds per plant, T3 = Three weeds per plant, T4 = Four weeds per plant, T5 = Five weeds per plant, T6 = Six weeds per plant, T7 = Seven weeds per plant, T8 = Eight weeds per plant, T9 = Nine weeds per plant and T10 = Ten weeds per plant.  Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, shoot Fresh and dry weight as well as yield parameters was carried out at the end of the experiment. The result depicts a significant decrease in the vegetative growth and yield parameters with increasing weed density in both varieties. Irrespective of the weed distance, all yield parameters decreased significantly with increasing number of co-habiting weeds except for plant co-habited with one weed at 20 cm and 30 cm weed distance which was significantly the same with the control in both varieties. The result is an indication that absence of weed or early control of weed should be done at the early weeks of growth before the onset of flowering if maximum production is expected.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Kehinde Stephen OLORUNMAIYE, University of Ilorin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology

A field experiment was conducted at the botanical garden of the University of Ilorin to determine the effects of weed density and distance on the growth and yield of two varieties of okra (NHAe-40 days and Kirikoi). The experiment was a complete randomized block design with eleven treatments and three replicates. The treatment details include T0 = No weed, T1 = One weed per plant T2= Two weeds per plant, T3 = Three weeds per plant, T4 = Four weeds per plant, T5 = Five weeds per plant, T6 = Six weeds per plant, T7 = Seven weeds per plant, T8 = Eight weeds per plant, T9 = Nine weeds per plant and T10 = Ten weeds per plant.  Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, shoot Fresh and dry weight as well as yield parameters was carried out at the end of the experiment. The result depicts a significant decrease in the vegetative growth and yield parameters with increasing weed density in both varieties. Irrespective of the weed distance, all yield parameters decreased significantly with increasing number of co-habiting weeds except for plant co-habited with one weed at 20 cm and 30 cm weed distance which was significantly the same with the control in both varieties. The result is an indication that absence of weed or early control of weed should be done at the early weeks of growth before the onset of flowering if maximum production is expected.

References

Amjad A, Anjum MA, Hussain S (2002). Effect of different sowing dates and various doses of fertilizers on juvenility and productivity of okra. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science 38(1-2):29-32.

Askew SD, Wilcut JW, Cranmer JR (2002). Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. L.) and weed response to flumioxazin applied pre-plant and post-emergence directed. Weed Technology 16(1):184-190.

Ayeni AO, Oyekan PO (1992). Weed control in soybean (Glycine maxL.) (Merr) in Nigeria. Tropical Oil Seed Journal 1:43-52.

Barrentine WL, Oliver LR (1997).Competitive threshold levels and control of common cocklebur in soybean. Mass Agricultural Experimental Station and Arkansans Agricultural Experimental Station Bull. McGuire. No 83, pp 27.

Carvalho LB, Binaco S, Guzzo CD (2010). Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macro nutrient accumulation of soybean. Planta Daninha 28(1):33-39.

Chadha K.L (2002). Hand book of horticulture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research pp 427.

Falodun EJ, Ogedegbe SA (2006). Effects of planting spacing and harvest intervals on growth, yield and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench).). Pakistan Journal of Science and Industrial Research 39(5):225-308.

Ibe AO (2005). Effects of NPK fertilizers on quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) in an ultisol, Southern Nigeria; Unpublis he d Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Crop/Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Kashif SR, Yasee M, Arshad M, Ayub M (2008). Response of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) to soil given encapsulated calcium carbide. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(1):175-181.

Odeleye FO, Odeleye OMO, Dada OA (2007). The performance of soybean (Glycine max L.) under varying weeding regimes in South Western Nigeria. Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; National Horticultural Research Institute, Jericho,Idi-Ishin, Ibadan, Olabisionabanjo.

Olorunmaiye KS, Ogunfolaji RT (2002). Effect of density and duration of Euphorbia heterophylla L. on the performance of cowpea Vigna unguiculata Walp. Journal of Nigeria Society for Experimental Biology 2(1):17- 22.

Paththinige SS, Upashantha PSG, Banda RMR, Fonseka RM (2008). Effect of plant spacing on yield and fruit characteristics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Tropical Agricultural Research 28:336-342.

Poggio SL (2005). Structure of weed communities occurring in monoculture and intercropping of field pea and barley. Agricultural Ecosystem and Environment 109(1-2):48-58.

Rao VS (2000). Weed management in crop and plantation crops. Principles of weed science (2nd edition) pp 211-216.

Reddy KN, Whiting KM (2002). Weed control and economic comparisons in soybean planting systems. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 21(2):21-35.

Reddy KN, Whiting KM (2000). Weed control and economic comparisons of Glyphosate resisitant, sulfonylena-tolerant, and conventional soybean (Glycine max) systems. Weed Technology 14(1):204-211.

Rizzardi MA (2004). Interference of populations of Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea ramosissima isolated or in mixture in soybean crop. Planta Daninha 22(1):29-34.

Saifullah M, Rabbani MG (2009). Evaluation and characterization of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) genotypes. Journal of Agriculture 7(1):92-99.

Saka HO, Hassan OU, Adekola FO, Olorunmaiye KS (2013). Effect of weed density (Euphorbia heterophylla) on the performance of popcorn maize (Zea mays var. everta). Agronomski glasnik 75(5-6):267-278.

Smith MAK, IK Ojo (2007). Influence of intra-row spacing and weed management system on colonization of weed, pot yield and quality in okra. African Crop Science Conference Proceeding 8(1):313-317.

Published
2019-09-30
How to Cite
OPADOKUN, W. O., & OLORUNMAIYE, K. S. (2019). Effects of Weed Density and Distance on the Growth and Yield of Two Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) Varieties . Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 11(3), 429-435. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb11310448
Section
Research articles