In-vitro Control of Oral Thrush Causal Organisms Using Medicinal Plants Extracts

  • Abosede M. EBABHI University of Lagos, Distance Learning Institute, Akoka, Lagos
  • Adedotun A. ADEKUNLE University of Lagos, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Akoka, Lagos
  • Yoma I. OGHENERHABOKE University of Lagos, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Akoka, Lagos
Keywords: Candida spp.; medicinal plants; mouth swab; oral thrush; phytochemicals

Abstract

Oral hygiene is important to the generality of the human healthcare system. For this, the antifungal activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of four medicinal plants of Jatropha curcas (stem), Eucaluptus golbulus (leaves), Vernonia amygdalina (stem) and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (root) were carried out in vitro against three species of Candida associated with oral thrush namely C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis using the disc diffusion agar assay. The zones of inhibition varied with the test organisms as well as the extracts. The ethanolic extract of Jatropha curcas showed the highest zone of inhibition of 10.88 ± 0.22 mm against C. albicans while the least zone of inhibition (6.13 ± 0.13 mm) was exhibited by the ethanol extract of Z. zanthoxyloides on C. glabrata. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannin, saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids and reducing sugar in all plant samples. This study can be further used as a foundation for the screening of phytochemical constituents by pharmaceuticals for the control and eradication of oral thrush.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Alara OR, Nour AH, Olalere OA (2018). Ethanolic extraction of bioactive compounds from Vernonia amygdalina leaf using response surface methodology as an optimization tool. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 12(2):1107-1122.

Arif T, Bhosale JD, Kumar N, Mandal TK, Bendre RS, Lavekar GS (2009). Natural products - antifungal agents derived from plant. Journal of Asian Natural Product Research 11(7):621-638.

Adebiyi AO, Koekemuoer T, Adebiyi AP, Smith N, Baxter E, Naude RJ, Van de Vanter M (2009). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts of two Nigerian chewing sticks. Pharmaceutical Biology 47(4):320-327.

Adekunle AA, Ikumapayi AM (2006) Antifungal property and phytochemical screening of the crude extracts of Funtumia elastica and Mallotus oppositifolus. West Indian Medical Journal 55 (4): 219 -223.

Agbogidi OM, Akparaobi SO, Eruoto PG (2013). Health and environmental benefits of Jatropha curcas Linn. Unique Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1(5):76-79.

Akerele O (1988). Medicinal plants and primary health care: An agenda for action. Fitoterapia 59(5):355-363.

Akinpelu DA (1999). Antimicrobial activity of Vernonia amygdalina leaves. Fitoterapia 70(4):432-434.

Ashafa AOT, Umebese C (2012). Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antifungal activity of Garuleum woodii Schinz. root extracts against human pathogenic microbes. Journal of Medical Plants Research 6(42):5513-5518.

Beveridge TJ (2001). Use of Gram stain in microbiology. Biotechnology and Histochemistry 76(3):111-118.

Calderone RA (2002). Introduction and historical perspectives Candida and Candidiasis. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 15-25.

Damke E, Tsuzuki JK, Cortez DAG, Ferreira ICP, Bertoni TA, Batista MR (2011). In vivo activity of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and resistant human vaginal Candida species. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11(1):35.

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO (2005). Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(7):685-688.

Egwaikhide PA, Okeniyi SO, Gimba CE (2009). Screening for anti-microbial activity and phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 3(12):1088-1091.

Ellis D, Davis S, Alexiou H, Handke R, Bartley R (2007). Description of medical fungi. Mycological Unit, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, pp 198.

Fidel PL, Vazquez JA, Sobel JD (1999). Candida glabrata: review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical disease with comparison to C. albicans. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12(1):80-96.

Flevari A, Theodorakopoulou M, Velegraki A, Armaganidis A, Dimopoulos G (2013). Treatment of invasive candidiasis in the elderly: a review. Clinical Interventions in Aging 8:1199-1208

Hardel DK, Sahoo L (2011). A review of phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Eucalyptus globulus: a multipurpose tree. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy 2(5):1527-1530.

Kelmanson JE, Jager AK, van Staden J (2000). Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 69(3):241-246.

Kim Y (2015). Statistical notes for clinical researchers: post-hoc multiple comparisons. The Korean Academy of Conservative Dentistry, http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2015.40.2.172.

Kirby WWM, Bauer AW, Sherris JC (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 45(4):493-496.

Koukpupetis T, Manolakaki D, Velhamos G (2010). Candida infection and colonization among nontrauma emergency surgery patients. Virulence 1(5):359-366.

Kong J, Goh NK, Chia TF (2003). Recent advances in traditional plant drugs and orchids. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 24(1):7-21.

Krogh-Madsen M, Arendrup MC, Heslet L, Knudsen JD (2006). Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient. Clinical Infectious Disease 42(7):938-944.

Kosh-Komba E, Aba Toumnou L, Zinga I, Touckia I, Nembara PU, Mukeina G, … Syssa-Magale JL (2017). Phytochemical screening, antifungal and antibacterial effect of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Zanthoxylum macrophylum used in traditional medicine in Yamboro (Central African Republic). European Journal of Medicinal Plants 19(3):1-11.

Lass-Flörl C (2009). The changing face of epidemiology of invasive fungal disease in Europe. Mycoses 52(3):197-205.

Lee SS, Robinson FM, Wong HY (1981). Rapid determination of yeast viability. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symposia 11:641-649.

Nayak A, Nayak RN, Soumya B, Bhat K, Kudalkar M (2011). Evaluation of antibacterial and anticandidal efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) and in vitro study. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy 2:230-235.

Ochei J, Kolhatkar A (2000). Medical laboratory science. Theory and practice. Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Delhi. 2nd Edition, pp 331-349.

Ogundare AO, Adetuyi FC (2007). Growth studies on microbial population of bread baked with wheat flour from South Western Nigeria. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 34:85-87.

Okigbo RN, Anuagasi CL, Amadi JE, Ukpadi UJ (2009). Potential inhibitory effects of some African tuberous plant extracts on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. International Journal of Integrated Biology 6(2):91-98.

Olutiola PO, Famurewa O, Sonntag HG (2000). Introduction to general microbiology: a practical approach. Bolaby Publication, Lagos, pp 267.

Osemene KP, Ilori MO, Elujoba AA (2013). Examining the nature of herbal research and development in Nigeria. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Applied Sciences 1(2):133-142.

Redding SW, Kirkpatrick WR, Coco BJ, Sadkowski L, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG, … Patterson TF (2002). Candida glabrata oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients receiving radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 40(5):1879-1881.

Rodrigues CF, Henriques M (2017). Oral mucositis caused by Candida glabrata biofilms: failure of the concomitant use of fluconazole and ascorbic acid. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Diseases 4(1):10-17.

Samuel TO, Adekunle AA, Ogundipe OT (2014). In-vitro activities of eight antifungal drugs against some clinical isolated fungi. University of Lagos Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 2(2):47-51.

Seeliger HPR (1956). Use of a urease test for the screening and identification of Cryptococci. Journal of Bacteriology 72(2):127-131.

Sharma AK, Gangwar M, Tilak R, Nath G, Sinha AS, Tripathi YB, Kumar D (2012). Comparative in vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical evaluation of methanolic extract of root, stem and leaf of Jatropha curcas Linn. Pharmacognocy Journal 4(30):34-40.

Shimada T (2006). Salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32(6):1149-1163.

Silva S, Negri M, Henriques M, Oliveira R, Williams DW, Azeredo J (2012). Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 36(2):288-305.

Silva E, Martins S, Alves E (2014). Essential oils from the control of bacteria speck in tomato crop. African Journal of Agricultural Research 9(34):2624-2629.

Sofowora A (2006). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Ibadan, Spectrum Books Limited, pp 285.

Srinivasan D, Thirumurugen N, Hansi T, Persumalasamy PL (2001) Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74(3):217-220.

Sule WF, Okonko IO, Joeseph TA, Ojezele MO, Nwanze JC, Alli JA, … Ojezele OJ (2010). In vitro antifungal activity of Senna alata Linn. crude leaf extract. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 5(3):275-284.

Takahashi T, Kokubo R, Sakaino M (2004). Antimicrobial activities of Eucalyptus leaf extracts and flavonoids from Eucalyptus maculata. Letters in Applied Microbiology 39(1):60-64.

Trease GE, Evans WC (2009). Pharmacognosy (16th ed). Edinburgh. Saunders Elsevier.

Umeh CN, Okolocha MB (2005). The occurrence of oral thrush yeasts among children in Onitsha urban, Anambra state, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Sciences 5(3):177-180.

Valle D, Cabrera E, Puzon J, Rivera W (2016). Antimicrobial activities of methanol, ethanol and supercritical CO2 extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on clinical isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria with transferable multiple drug resistance. Plos One 11(1):e0146349.

Walsh TJ, Dixon DM (1996). Deep mycoses. Barons Medical Microbiology (4th ed) pp 204-207.

William D, Timothy G (2006). Andrew’s diseases of the skin. Clinical Dermatology - Expert Consult, Online and Print. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Published
2019-09-30
How to Cite
EBABHI, A. M., ADEKUNLE, A. A., & OGHENERHABOKE, Y. I. (2019). In-vitro Control of Oral Thrush Causal Organisms Using Medicinal Plants Extracts. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 11(3), 376-382. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb11310443
Section
Research articles