Comparative Effect of Poultry and Swine Manures on the Performance of White Guinea Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) in an Ultisols Environment

Nwabueze C. NWAOGUALA, Kolawole E. LAW-OGBOMO

Abstract


White Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) is an important staple food in a number of African countries, including Nigeria and Ghana. However, the tuber yield in these areas is below its potential yield. The most probably constraint to low tuber yield is the low soil nutrient status. A field trial was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, between April and November 2016 and 2017, to evaluate the effect of poultry and swine manures on the growth and tuber yield of white Guinea yam (D. rotundata) in an ultisols environment. The trial was laid out in a 2 × 3 split plot arrangement fitted into randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main plots were organic fertilizers (poultry and swine manures) and the sub-plots were represented by three rates (0, 300 and 450 kg N ha-1) of application. Data collection on growth characters were on vine length (cm), vine girth (cm), number of nodes, number of leaves and leaf area index. At harvest, tuber length (cm), tuber girth (cm), number of tubers per plant, tuber weight and tuber yield (t ha-1) were also evaluated. The results showed that growth and yield variables varied significantly (p < 0.05) with organic fertilizer types and application rates. Poultry manure treated plants produced higher (p < 0.05) number of nodes and leaves than swine manure treated plants. Application rates of 300 and 450 kg N ha-1 of poultry manure significantly increased vine length, vine girth, number of nodes and leaves as well as leaf area index. Tuber weight and yield were higher in plants treated with poultry manure with the application rates of 300 and 450 kg N ha-1 performed better than control in 2016, while the application rate of 300 kg N ha-1 had the highest tuber weight and yield in 2017. Application rates of 300 and 450 kg N ha-1 performed better than the control (0 kg N ha-1) in 2016. However, in 2017, application rate of 300 kg Nha-1 had the highest tuber weight and yield. The present study suggests that poultry manure at application rate of 300 kg N ha-1 could be adopted by white Guinea yam farmers for high productivity of the crop under intense and continuous cropping in humid ultisols environment.


Keywords


growth variables; organic fertilizers; soil nutrient status; tuber yield

Full Text:

PDF

References


Asadu CLA, Ugwu BO (1997). Soil resource management with particular reference to three arable crops in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Advances Crop Engineering for the 21st Century. Proceedings of a Conference on New Genetic Engineering, 23-27 February, 1997. AEARC, Tango Jam, Pakistan pp 999-1002.

Carsky RJ, Asiedu R, Cornet D (2010). Review of soil fertility management for based systems in West Africa. African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops 8(2):1-17.

Duncan J (2005). Composting chicken manure. WSU cooperative extension. King County Master Gardner and Cooperative Extension Livestock Advisor, Washington State University, Pullman. Retrieved 11 Nov 2017 from hppt://www.scirp.org>references paper.

Egharevba RKA, Ogbe FM (2002). The effects of different levels of organic and mineral fertilizer on the yield performance of two Amaranths cultivars. Plant Science 3:62-72.

El-Shakweer MHA, El-Sayad EA, Eweas MS (1998). Soil and plant analysis as a guide for interpretation of the improvement efficiency of organic conditioners added to different soils in Egypt. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 29(11):206-208.

Everiit JH, Brenda N (2003). Ground-based measurement of leaf area index: A review of methods, instruments and current controversies. Journal of Experimental Botany 54(392):2403-2417.

FAAN (2015). Meteorological unit. Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria, Benin City.

FAOSTAT (2013). Food and Agriculture Organization. 2013 FAOSTAT. FAO Statistic Division.

Law-Ogbomo KE (2007). Agronomic evaluation of white yam (Dioscorea roundata Poir) in different ecological zones of Edo State, Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Law-Ogbomo KE, Nwachokor MA (2010). Soil physic-chemical properties of five soils formed on different parent materials. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science 6(1):14-19.

Law-Ogbomo KE, Osaigbovo AU (2017). Growth and yield performance of jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) in response to nitrogen levels of poultry manure in an ultisols environment. Journal of Organic Agriculture and Environment 5(2):5 -12.

Law-Ogbomo KE, Osaigbovo AU, Kadiri LH (2017). Influence of some animal manures on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under humid ultisols environment. Journal of Organic Agriculture and Environment 5(2):46 -53.

Law-Ogbomo KE, Remison SU (2008). Growth and yield of white guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) influenced by NPK fertilization on a forest site in Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 46(1-2):9-12.

Mylavarapu RS, Kennelley DE (2002). UF/IFAS extension soil testing laboratory (ESTL): Analytical procedures and training manual. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, U.S.A pp 28.

Ohiri AC, Chukwu GO (1991). Evaluation of optimum levels of organic manure with or without mineral fertilizers for yam production. Annual Report of the NRCRI, Umudike, Nigeria pp 32-36.

Okoli PSO, Nweke IA (2015). Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance of cucumber fruits. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agriculture 3(4):262-266.

O’Sullivan JN (2010). Yam nutrition: nutritional disorder and soil fertility management. Australian Center for International Agricultural Research 144:1-112.

Remison SU (1997). Basic principles of crop physiology. Sadoh Press, Benin City, Nigeria.

Singh SP (2015). Nutrient supplementation through organic manures for growth and yield of ginger (Zingibe officinale Rose). Journal of Eco-Friendly Agriculture 10(1):28-31.

Tisdale SL, Nelson WL (1990). Soil fertility and effects of magnesium sources on the yield and chemical composition of crops. Michigan Agent, Experimental Station, Bulletin Press, Michigan, America pp 29-31.

Uzoh IM, Obalum SE, Ene J (2015). Mineralization rate constants, half-lives and effects of two organic amendments on maize and carbon-nitrogen status of loamy ultisols in southeastern Nigeria. Agro-Science 14(3):35-40.

Zhang J, Blackmer AM, Kyveryga M (2010). Fertilizer bands and dual effects of nitrogen on young corn plants. Group 50:100.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/nsb10410393


**********************************************************************

Under the aegis of Horticulture and Forestry Society from Transylvania

**********************************************************************