Fruiting Species Influence the Seasonal Use of the Habitat by Sloth Bear in and around Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat, India
Sloth bear populations in India are threatened, and the ecology and distribution of the species occurring in the region's protected areas are known, but there is no scientific basis underlying management strategies for sloth bear. We used bear indirect and opportunistic direct signs like feeding site, scats, foot print trails, claw marks on climbing trees, to study habitat use and distribution of sloth bear (Melurus ursinus) across Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary and Danta Reserve Forest, Gujarat, India from April, 2010 to January 2011. We survey 40 grids (5 × 5 km) 3 km signs survey = 120 km × 3 = 360 km and total 766 bear signs were recorded, and for vegetation we surveyed 40 grids × 2 km vegetation transect = 80 km were sampled. A total of nine (9) vegetation types were recorded and the bear sign where crossed check with the vegetation forest type. Fruits appear to be a key resource for sloth bears, and factors affecting fruit abundance or seasonality will affect bear foraging as well as the humans to depend on such fruits as a food common resource. Knowledge of this relationship will allow managers to be more proactive in managing bears. We recommend using sign surveys for monitoring changes in sloth bear presence, as they are inexpensive, efficient, and can be conducted by trained rangers.
Akhatar N, Bargali HS, Chauhan NPS (2004). Sloth bear habitat use in disturbed and unprotected areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. Ursus 15: 203 – 211.
Champion HB, Seth SK (1968). A revised survey of forest types of India, Government of India. 404 Pp.
Chauhan NPS, Bargali HS, Akhtar N (1999). Human- sloth bear conflict in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Presented in the 12th international Conference on Bear Research and Management, Romania. Unpublished MS.
Desai, AA, Baskaran N, Venkatesh S (1997). Behavioral ecology of the sloth bear in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park, Tamil Nadu. Report- A collaborative Project between Bombay Natural History Society and Tamil Nadu Forest Department.
Dharaiya N, Ratnayeke S (2009). Escalating Human-Sloth Bear Conflicts in North Gujarat: a tough time to encourage support for bear conservation. International Bear News, International Association for Bear Research and Management (IBA) and IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group 18 (3): 12-14.
Dharaiya N (2008). Study on the status, distribution and occurrence of certain rare and small mammals in North Gujarat region. Final Report Submitted to Gujarat Forest Research Institute. 80 pp
Dharaiya N (2009). Evaluating habitat and human-bear conflicts in North Gujarat, India, to seek solution for human-bear coexistence. Final report submitted to The Ruffords small grants foundation. 44 pp. (www.ruffordsmallgrants.org)
Garshelis DL, Joshi AR, Smith JLD (1999a). Estimating density and relative abundance of sloth bears. Ursus 11: 87-98.
Garshelis DL, Joshi AR, Smith JLD, Rice CG (1999b): Sloth bear conservation action plan. In: Bear status survey and conservation action plan (eds. Servheen C, B Peython): IUCN / SSC bear and polar Bear specialist groups. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 309 Pp.
Gokula V (1991). Some aspects on the feeding habits of the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) at Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu (South India). M.Sc. Thesis, A.V.C. College, Mannambandal, Tamil Nadu.
Gokula V, Sivaganesan N, Varadarajan M (1995). Food of the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) in Mundanthurai Plateau, Tamil Nadu. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. 92:408-410.
Gopal R (1991). Ethological observations on the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus). Indian Forester 117: 915-920.
Johnsingh AJT (1981). Ecology and behaviour of the dhole or Indian wild dog –Cuon alpinus Pallas 1811, with special reference to predator-prey relations at Bandipur. Ph.D dissertation, Madurai University, Madurai. India, 306 pp.
Joshi AR, Garshelis DL, Smith JLD (1995). Home ranges of sloth bears in Nepal: implications for conservation. Journal of Wildlife Management, 59: 204 – 214.
Joshi AR, Garshelis DL, Smith JLD (1997). Seasonal and habitat-related diets of sloth bears in Nepal Journal of Mammology 78(2): 584-597.
Laurie A, Sedensticker J (1977). Behavioural ecology of the sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus): Journal of Zoology (London) 182:187-204.
Litvaitis JA, Kane DM (1994). Relationship of hunting technique and hunter selectivity to composition of black bear harvest. Wildlife Society Bulletin 22:604-606.
Mewada T, Dharaiya N (2010): Seasonal dietary composition of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) in the reserve forest of Vijaynagar, North Gujarat, India. Tiger paper 37(2): 8-13.
Mewada TP (2015). Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) in Semi-Arid Region. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 7(3):281-288.
Murthy RS, Sankar K (1995). Assessment of bear-man conflict in North Bilaspur Forest Division, Bilaspur, M. P., Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
Pandey CN (2004). Gujarat’s Wild Destinations. Gujarat Ecological Education and Research Foundation, Gandhinagar, India Pp: 52-56
Ratnayeke S, van Manen FT, Padmalal UKGK (2007). Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka. Wildlife Biology 13: 272-284.
Rossell CR, Litvaitis JA 1991. A comparison of methods to estimate the distribution of low-density black bear populations. Transactions of the Northeast Section of The Wildlife Society 48:15-20.
Singh R, Chand K, Patel GA (2002). Management plan for Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary. Research and Working circle, Ghandhinagar.
Yoganand, K., Rice, CG, Johnsingh AJT (2005). Evaluation Panna National Park with special reference to ecology of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus). Final Project Report. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.