Influence of Magnetized Water and Seed on Yield and Uptake of Heavy Metals of Tomato
Keywords:heavy metals in tomato, irrigation, magnetized water, pair t-test, tomato quality
This study assessed influence of magnetized water (MW) and magnetized seed (MS) on yield and uptake of heavy metals of tomato. Tomato seeds were put on permanent magnet (1000 gauss) for 24 hours and water was allowed to flow through magnetic flux density 319 gauss. Tomato seeds (variety UC82B) were planted in 16 pots, thinned after 21 days to one tomato/pot and irrigated with MW or non-magnetized water (NMW). Four treatments used were MS and MW (T1), non-magnetized seed (NMS) and MW (T2), MS and NMW (T3), NMS and NMW (T4). A 1.0 litre of water was applied to tomato plant in a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated 4 times. Yields and concentrations of cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined from the tomato fruit. The mean yields for T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 288.1, 275.8, 176.6 and 200.1 g/pot, respectively. Mean concentrations of Iron for T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 0.015, 0.010, 0.010 and 0.010 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of zinc for T1, T2 T3 and T4 were 0.030, 0.110, 0.115 and 0.125 mg/L. The values of copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc for T2 were 0.02-0.03, 1.2-1.8, 0.03-0.07, 0.10-0.12 and 0.00-0.01 mg/L. The corresponding values for T4 were 0.02-0.02, 1.30-1.60, 0.04-0.04, 0.08-0.11 mg/L but Zn was not detected. Concentrations of heavy metals in the tomato were below FAO/WHO permissible limits. MW and MS increased tomato yield and didn’t increase uptake of heavy metals that could cause diseases to man.
Aladjadjiyan A (2007). The use of physical methods for plant growing stimulation in Bulgaria. Journal of Central European Agriculture 8(3):369-380.
Alderfasi AA, Al-Suhaibani NA, Selim MM, Al-Hammad BA (2016). Using magnetic technologies in management of water irrigation programs under arid and semi-arid ecosystem. Journal of Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research 3(4):1-7.
Ali AME (2004). Effect of magnetizing irrigation water and seeds on the production of okra. MSc thesis submitted to the Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Al-Khazan M, Abdullatif BM, Al-Assaf N (2011). Effects of magnetically treated water on water status, chlorophyll pigments and some elements content of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) at different growth stages. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 5(9):722-731.
AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edition, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Aoda MI, Fattah MA (2011). The interactive effects of water magnetic treatment and deficit irrigation on plant productivity and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L.). Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 42:164-179.
Babu C (2010). Use of magnetic water and polymer in agriculture. Tropical Research 08:806.
Chineke TC, ME Idinoba, OC Ajayi (2011). Seasonal evapotranspiration signatures under a changing land scope and ecosystem management in Nigeria: implication for agriculture and food security. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2(2):191-204.
Ejieji CJ, Adeniran KA (2009). Effect of water and fertilizer stress on the yield, fresh and dry matter production of grain amaranth. Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering 1(1):18-24.
ELshokali AAM, Abdelbagi AM (2014). Impact of magnetized water on elements contents in plants seeds. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology 1(4):12-21.
FAO (1985). Water quality for irrigation for agriculture. Irrigation Drainage Paper 29:1-130.
Hozayn M, AMS Abdul-Qados (2010). Irrigation with magnetized water enhances growth, chemical constituent and yield of chickpea (Circer arietinum L.). Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1(4):671-676.
Maheshwari RL, HS Grewal (2009). Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: its effects on vegetable crop yield and water productivity. Journal of Agricultural Water Management 96(8):1229-1236.
McMahon CA (2006). Investigation of the quality of water treated by magnetic fields. B. Eng Thesis University of Southern Queensland.
Mohammed AI, Ebead BM (2013). Effect of irrigation with magnetically treated water on faba bean growth and composition. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research 1(2):24-40.
Montgomery DC, Runger GC, Hubele NF (1998). Engineering statistics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, pp 135-248.
Moussa HR (2011). The impact of magnetic water application for improving common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. New York Science Journal 4(6):15-20.
Nagajyoti PC, Lee KD, Sreekanth TVM (2012). Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Springer Journal of Environmental Chemistry Letter 8(3):199-216.
Ogunlela AO (2001). Stochastic analysis of rainfall event in Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 1(1):39-49.
Othman F, Sohaili J, Fausia Z (2009). Influence of magnetic treatment on the improvement of landfill leachate treatment. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management 4(3-4):433-444.
Podlesny J, Pietruszewski S, Podleoena A (2004). Efficiency of the magnetic treatment of broad bean seeds cultivated under experimental plot conditions. International Agrophysics 18(1):65-71.
Rawabdeh H, Shiyab S, Shibli R (2014). The effect of irrigation by magnetically chlorophyll and macroelements uptake of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10 (2):205-214.
Sani M (2003). The effect of moisture stress on yield of maize intercropped with cowpea. Unpublished B. Eng Project report submitted to the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, pp 55.
Selim MM (2008). Application of magnetic technologies in correcting underground brackish water for irrigation in the arid and semi-arid ecosystem. The 3rd International Conference on Water Resources and Arid Environments, and the 1st Arab Water Forum, held at King Fahd Cultural Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, pp 1-11.
SON (2007). Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. pp 1-30.
Taia W, Al-Zahrani H, Kotbi A (2007). The effect of static magnetic forces on water contents and photosynthetic pigments in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 14(1):103-107.
Ufoegbune GC, Bello NJ, Dada OF, Eruola AC, Makinde AA, Amori AA (2012). Estimating water availability for agriculture in Abeokuta south western Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences 12(9):13-24.
WHO (2003). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, WHO, Geneva, pp 90-120.
Yano A, Ohashi Y, Hirasaki T, Fujiwara K (2004). Effects of 60 Hz magnetic field on photosynthetic uptake and early growth of radish seedlings. Bioelectromagnetics 25(8):572-581.
Yusuf KO, Ogunlela AO (2017a). Effects of magnetized water on the vegetative growth and yield of tomato. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 19(1):1-8.
Yusuf KO, Ogunlela AO (2017b). Effect of magnetic treatment of water on evapotranspiration of tomato. Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment 13(1):86-96.
Yusuf KO, Ogunlela AO (2016). Effect of magnetically treated water on the quality of tomato. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology 12(2):29-33.
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.