Competition Indices of Safflower and Faba Bean Intercrops as Affected by Fertilizers

  • Mahmoodreza SAEIDI University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Eco-physiology, Tabriz
  • Yaghoub RAEI University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Eco-physiology, Tabriz
  • Rouhollah AMINI University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Eco-physiology, Tabriz
  • Akbar TAGHIZADEH University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Tabriz
  • Bahman PASBAN-ESLAM Crop and Horticulture Science Research Department, East Azarbaijan, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centers, AREEO, Tabriz
  • Asal ROHI SARALAN University of Tabriz, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Eco-physiology, Tabriz
Keywords: biofertilizer, crowding coefficient, intercropping, land equivalent ratio, monetary advantage


Cropping systems of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) with faba bean (Vicia faba L.) under different fertility were compared with sole cropping of each crop during 2015 and 2016 at the Research Farm of Tabriz University in Iran. The treatments were cropping systems (safflower and faba bean sole croppings, intercropping systems of safflower and faba bean with ratios of 1:1 and 2:1), and nutrient levels (100% chemical fertilizers, 60%, 30% chemical + biofertilizers and no fertilizer). A factorial set of treatments based on a randomized complete block design replicated three times was used. Cropping system and fertility effects were significant for yield and yield components of each crop. Yield and yield components were increased with the integrated use of 60% chemical plus biofertilizers for both years, while seed yield was reduced by intercropping. Maximum land equivalent ratio (LER), relative value total (RVT), system productivity index (SPI) and monetary advantage index (MAI) were achieved in nutritive level of 60% chemical plus biofertilizers as intercropped plants in ratio of 1:1 for both years. The total actual yield loss (AYL) values were positive and greater than zero in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped safflower had a higher relative crowding coefficient (RCC) than intercropped faba bean, indicating that safflower was more competitive than faba bean in intercropping systems. From this study, it is inferred that intercropping (safflower and faba bean) with integrated use of the reduced chemical and biofertilizers may give better overall yield and income than sole cropping of each crop species.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdelkader MAI, Hamad EHA (2015). Evaluation of productivity and competition indices of safflower and fenugreek as affected by intercropping pattern and foliar fertilization rate. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 4:956-966.

Abou-Khadrah SH, Mohamed AAE, Gerges NR, Diab ZM (2000). Response of four sunflower hybrids in low nitrogen fertilizer levels of phosphor in bio-fertilizer. Journal of Agricultural Research Tanta University 28:105-118.

Agegnehu G, Ghizam A, Sinebo W (2006). Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlands. European Journal of Agronomy 25:202-207.

Azimi SM, Nabati E, Shaban M, Lak M (2013). Effect of N and P bio fertilizers on yield components of barley. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research 2(2):365-370.

Banik P (1996). Evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and legume intercropping under 1:1 and 2:1 row-replacement series system. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 176(5):289-294.

Banik P, Sasmal T, Ghosal PK, Bagchi DK (2000). Evaluation of mustard (Brassica compestris var. Toria) and legume intercropping under 1:1 and 2:1 row-replacement series systems. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 185:9-14.

Caballero R, Goicoechea EL, Hernaiz PJ (1995). Forage yields and quality of common vetch and oat sown at varying seeding ratios and seeding rates of common vetch. Field Crops Res 41(2):135-140.

Chimonyo VGP, Modi AT, Mabhaudhi T (2016). Water use and productivity of a sorghum–cowpea–bottle gourd intercrop system. Agricultural Water Management 165:82-96.

Daiss N, Lobo MG, Socorro R, Bruckner U, Heller J, Gonzaler M (2008). The effect of three organic pre-harvest treatments on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) quality. European Food Research and Technology 226(3):345-353.

Dhima KV, Lithourgidis AA, Vasilakoglou IB, Dordas CA (2007). Competition indices of common vetch and cereal intercrops in two seeding ratio. Field Crop Research 100(2-3):249-256.

Farnia A, Moayedi M (2014). Effect of phosphate and nitrogen bio-fertilizers on yield, yield components, oil and protein in sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.). Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences 3:110-117.

Fetene M (2003). Intra- and inter-specific competition between seedlings of Acacia etbaica and a perennial grass (Hyparrenia hirta). Journal of Arid Environments 55(3):441-451.

Ghosh PK (2004). Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India. Field Crops Research 88(2-3):227-237.

Imran M, Ali A, Waseem M, Tahir M, Ullah A, … Rehman H (2011). Bio-economic assessment of sunflower-mungbean intercropping system at different planting geometry. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science 1(4):126-136.

Islam MS, Sabagh EL, Hasana A, Akhter K, Hasan M, Barutçulard C (2017). Growth and yield response of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as influenced by sulphur and boron application. Scientific Journal of Crop Science 6(1):153-160.

Jahan M, Nassiri Mahallati M, Amiri MB, Ehyayi HR (2013). Radiation absorption and use efficiency of sesame as affected by biofertilizers inoculation in a low input cropping system. Industrial Crops and Products 43:606-611.

Jahansooz MR, Yunusa IA, Coventry DR, Palmer AR, Eamus D (2007). Radiation and water use associated with growth and yields of wheat and chickpea in sole and mixed crops. European Journal of Agronomy 26(3):275-282.

Jalilian J, Najafabadi A, Zardashti M (2017). Intercropping systems and farming systems affect the yield and yield components of safflower and bitter vetch. Journal of Plant Interactions 12(1):92-99.

Krantz BA, Virmani SM, Singh S, Rao MR (1976). Intercropping for increased and more stable agricultural production for semi-arid tropics. In Monyo et al. (eds). Intercropping in Semi-Arid Areas. University of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania and IDRC, Ottawa, Canada.

Kumar S, Pandey P, Maheshwari DK (2009). Reduction in dose of chemical fertilizers and growth enhancement of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) with application of rhizospheric competent Pseudomonas aeruginosa LES4. European Journal of Soil Biology 45:334-340.

Lal B, Rana KS, Rana DS, Shivay YS, Sharma DK, … Gautam P (2017). Biomass, yield, quality and moisture use of Brassica as influenced by intercropping with chickpea under semiarid tropics. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 18(1):61-71.

Lithourgidis AS, Dordas CA, Damalas CA, Valchostergios DN (2011a) Annual intercrops: an alternative pathway for sustainable agriculture. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(4):396-410.

Lithourgidis AS, Valchostergios DN, Dordas CA, Damalas CA (2011b) Dry matter yield, nitrogen content, and competition in pea-cereal intercropping systems. European Journal of Agronomy 34(4):287-294.

Mahapatra SC (2011). Study of grass-legume intercropping system in terms of competition indices and monetary advantage index under acid lateritic soil of India. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 1(1):1- 6.

Manjith Kumar BR, Chidenand M, Mansur PM, Salimath SC (2009). Influence of different row proportions on yield components and yield of rabi crops under different intercropping systems. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 22(5):1087-1089.

Mead R, Willey RW (1980). The concept of a ‘Land Equivalent Ratio’ and advantages in yields from intercropping. Experimental Agriculture 16(3):217-228.

Midya A, Bhattacharjee K, Ghose SS, Banik P (2005). Deferred seeding of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) field on yield advantages and smothering of weeds. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191:195-201.

Mirzakhani M, Ardakani MR, Aeene Band A, Rejali F, Shirani Rad AH (2009.) Response of spring safflower to co-inoculation with Azotobacter chroococum and Glomus intraradices under different levels of nitrogen and phosphourus. American journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4(3):255-261.

Narula N, Kumar V, Behl R, Deubel A, Gransee A, Merbach W (2000). Effect of p solubilizing on N, P, K uptake in p- responsive wheat genotypes grown under greenhouse condition. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 163(4):393-398.

Nassab ADM, Amon T, Kaul HP (2011). Competition and yield in intercrops of maize and sunflower for biogas. Industrial Crops and Products 34(1):1203-1211.

Oelbermann M, Echarte L (2011). Evaluating soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in recently established maize/soybean intercropping systems. European Journal of Soil Science 62(1):35-41.

Ofori F, Stern WR (1987). Cereal-legume intercropping systems. Advances in Agronomy 41:41-90.

Raei Y, Weisany W, Ghassemi-Golezani K, Torabian SH (2015). Effects of additive intercropping on field performance of potato and green bean at different densities. Biological Forum - An International Journal 7(2):534-540.

Rezaei-Chianeh E, Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab A, Shakiba MR, Ghassemi Golezani K, Aharizad S (2011). Intercropping of maize and faba bean at different plant population densities. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(7):1786-1793.

Sadeghpour A, Jahanzad E, Esmaeili A, Hosseini MB, Hashemi M (2013) Forage yield, quality and economic benefit of intercropped barley and annual medic in semiarid conditions: Additive series. Field Crops Research 148:43-48.

Seyed Sharifi R (2012). Study of nitrogen rates effects and seed bio priming with PGPR on quantitative and qualitative yield of safflower. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 2:162-166.

Seyed Sharif R, Namvar A, Seyed Sharifi R (2017). Grain filling and fatty acid composition of safflower fertilized with integrated nitrogen fertilizer and biofertilizers. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 52(4):236-243.

Singh Rajesh K, Kumar H, Singh Amitesh K (2010). Brassica based intercropping systems - A Review. Journal of Agricultural Science 31(4):6-11.

Timmusk S, Nicander B, Granhall U, Tillberg E (1999). Cytokinin production by Paenibacillus polymyxa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31(13):1847-1852.

Uhart SA, Andrade FH (1995). Nitrogen deficiency in maize: II. Carbon nitrogen interaction effects on kernel number and grain yield. Crop Science 35(5):1384-1389.

Vandermeer JH (1989). The ecology of intercropping. Cambridge University Press, UK.

Wahla LH, Ahmad R, Ehsanullah AA, Jabbar A (2009). Competitive functions of components crops in some barely based intercropping systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 11:69-71.

Willey RW (1979). Intercropping - its importance and research needs. Part 1. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crop Abstract 32:1-10.

Willey RW, Rao MR (1980). A competitive ratio for quantifying competition between intercrops. Experimental Agriculture 16(2):117-125.

Xiang DB, Yong TW, Wen YY, Yan W, Gong WZ, … Lei T (2012). Effect of phosphorus and potassium nutrition on growth and yield of soybean in relay strip intercropping system. Scientific Research and Essays 7(3):342-351.

Zafaranieh M (2015). Effect of various combinations of safflower and chickpea intercropping on yield and yield components of safflower. Agriculture Science Developments 4:31-34.

Zhang L, Werf WVD, Bastiaans L, Zhang S, Li B, Spiert JHJ (2008). Light interception and utilization in relay intercrops of wheat and cotton. Field Crops Research 107(1):29-42.

How to Cite
SAEIDI, M., RAEI, Y., AMINI, R., TAGHIZADEH, A., PASBAN-ESLAM, B., & ROHI SARALAN, A. (2019). Competition Indices of Safflower and Faba Bean Intercrops as Affected by Fertilizers. NOTULAE SCIENTIA BIOLOGICAE, 11(1), 130-137.
Research articles