Hepatic Histomorphological Changes and Oxidative Stress Profile of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Juveniles Fed with Sodium Propanoate-Preserved Diets

Patrick E. ABA, Ifeanyi E. UZOCHUKWU, Nelson I. OSSAI, Ifeanyi G. EKE

Abstract


Sodium propanoate is in the list of approved feed preservatives. However, there is dearth of information on its biological effects on the C. gariepinus. The present study investigated the effect of sodium propanoate-preserved feed on the hepatic histomorphometric changes, oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of C. gariepinus juveniles. One hundred juveniles of mixed sexes, assigned into 5 groups of 20 fish per group, with each group consisting of 2 replicates of 10 fish, were used for the investigation. Group A juveniles were fed basal diet, while groups B-E received basal diet incorporated with sodium propanoate at the rate of 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/15 kg of feed respectively. Treatments were done two times daily for 8 weeks. Samples (sera and liver) were collected on the last day for evaluation of a few biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde values, catalase activity, C-reactive protein levels) and histomorphometric alterations in the liver. Results indicated that fish in groups D and E had higher catalase activities, lower serum levels of C-reactive proteins and an intact hepatic histomorphormetry when compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the plasma malondialdehyde values in all the groups. It was concluded that preservation of fish feed with sodium propanoates improved antioxidant status of C. gariepinus and protected liver histology.


Keywords


Clarias gariepinus; C-reactive protein; hepatic histomorphometry; oxidative stress markers; sodium propanoate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aba PE, Asuzu IU (2015). Effects of administration of methanol root bark extract of Cussonia arborea on serum biochemical markers of liver damage and histo-morphology of liver of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 8(6):1-10.

Aba PE, Okenwa-Ani CP (2015). Biochemical effects of methanolic extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolia on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9(2):1-10.

Ballou SP (1992). C-reactive protein and the acute phase response. Advances in Internal Medicine 37:313-316.

Brock M, Buckel W (2004). On the mechanism of action of the antifungal agent propionate: Propionyl-CoA inhibits glucose metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. European Journal of Biochemistry 271(15):3227-3241.

Chavez-Sanchez MC, Palacios CM, Moreno IO (1994). Pathological effects of feeding young Oreochromis niloticus diets supplemented with different levels of aflatoxin B1. Aquaculture 127(1):49-60.

Chelikani P, Fita L, Loewen PC (2004). Diversity of structures and properties among catalases. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 61(2):192-208.

da Silva BC, Vieira FDN, MouriƱo JLP, Bolivar N, Seiffert WQ (2014). Butyrate and propionate improve the growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture Research 47(2):612-623.

Drury RA, Wallington A, Cameroun SR (1967). Histological techniques. Oxford University Press, New York pp 1-420.

Dupuy AM, Badiou S, Descomps B, Cristol JP (2003). Immuno-turbidimetric determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and high sensitivity CRP on heparin plasma. Comparison with serum determination. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 41(7):948-949.

Grotto D, Maria LS, ValentiniJ, Paniz C, Schmitt G, Garcia , et al., Farina M (2009). Importance of the lipid peroxidation biomarkers and methodological aspects for malondialdehyde quantification. Quimica Nova 32(1):169-174.

Okorie-Kanu CO, Unkalamba NJ (2016). Haematological and blood biochemistry values of cultured Heterobranchus longifillis in Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Animal Research International 11(2):1987-1993.

Qin H, Li H, Zhou X, Peng C, et al., Wang M (2016). Effect of superoxide and inflammatory factor on Aflatoxin B1 triggered hepatocellular carcinoma. American Journal of Translational Research 8(9):4003.

Safari R, Hoseinifar SH, Kavandi M (2016). Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 42(6):1733-1739.

Sinha AK (1972). Colorimetric assay of catalase. Analytical Biochemistry 47(2):389-394.

Subramanian D, Jang YH, Kim DH, Kang BJ, Heo MS (2013). Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 35(3):808-814.

Tedelind S, Westberg F, Kjerrulf M, Vidal A (2007). Anti-inflammatory properties of short chain fatty acids acetate and propionate: A study with relevance to inflammatory bowel disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology 13(20):2826.

Urso ML, Clarkson PM (2003). Oxidative stress, exercise and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology 189(1-2):41-54.

Wallin B, Rosengren B, Shertyer HG, Camejo G (1993). Lipoprotein oxidation and measurement of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances formation in a single microfilter plate: its use for evaluation of antioxidants. Analytical Biochemistry 208(1):10-15.

Young B, Gleeson M, Cripps AW (1999). C-reactive protein: a critical review. Pathology 23(2):118-124.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/nsb10410316


**********************************************************************

Under the aegis of Horticulture and Forestry Society from Transylvania

**********************************************************************